Monday, December 02, 2013

57 Were Aryans as much enamoured as Europeans and Americans with body colors of humans?



Discussion topics: racialism, brahmanas, kshatriyas, vysyas, sudras

vyAsa mahAbharata in Sanskrit language. vyAsa, is also known as KRISHNA DVAIPAYANA.
--Santi Parva 181 005 (bhrigu explained to bharadvAja):
brahmaNAnAm sito varNah kshatriyANAm tu lohitah-
vaiSyAnAm pItako varNah SUdrANAm asitas tathA

English gist: brahmins have white color. kshatriyas have red color. vaisyas have yellow color. sUdras have black color.


Context in mahAbhArata epic.
mahAbhArata Epic is compared to a sugar cane full of juice. Each parva is a part of the cane. mahAbhArata has 18 main parvAs. Sub-divisions in the parvAs are also called parvAs.
Santi Parva means the Sugarcane segment of "Peace". This is the 12th volume of the mahAbhArata epic. It is very voluminous with hundreds of chapters.

Brief narration of story completed upto this point: PAnDavas and kauravas were paternal cousins. They fought a fierce battle, which resulted in annihilation of huge armies. pAnDavas were five brothers. The eldest, yudhishThira (also called dharma or, dharmarAja (the king of righteousness), became the new emperor/king.

Though yudhishThira won the battle and became the supremo, he suffered from a complex of guilt of killing grand parents, uncles, cousins, relatives. He felt that he was full of 'kilbisham', i.e. sin.

Great Grand sire and protector of the race, bhIshma pitAmaha was still alive. He was lying on a bed of arrows, awaiting the arrival of auspicious uttarAyaNa (Northern winter solstice, when sun changes his direction towards North at the line of Capricorn.)

yudhishThira fell at the feet of Grand Sire and sought solace. Grand sire bhIshma gave him a long discourse on duties of kings, what was good and what was not good, etc. This discourse is so long that we need several weeks or months to comprehend its full spirit and purport and tenor.

Context of this quote in SAnti parva (vol. 12 of mahAbhArata).

bhIshma was speaking to yudhishThira. bhIshma narrated the conversation between two sages. The first sage was bhrigu, here the preceptor. The second sage was bharadwAja (or bharadvAja) inquirer. bharadvAja asked bhrigu about the origin of this Universe, humans, etc. bhrigu explained him the whole thing in nearly a 100 verses.

This verse is a part of explanation of the four caste system prevailing in Hindus of India. brAhmaNas (priests), kshatrias (warriors), vysyas (agriculturists and merchants), and sUdras (or soodras = servants) were the four castes or classes. The verse attributes colors to the bodies of these casstes.

ybrao a donkey's (this blogger's) comments



Hitherto we know that Americans and Europeans have this obsession with colors of bodies of people (racialism?). People were segregated into whites, blacks, yellow colored people (mongols or Chinese?), hispanic etc. etc. Residents of India were treated as brownies.

Indians today have bodies with mixed complexions. Transformation of white body color to black over centuries is due to presence of skin pigment 'melanin' to guard against sun's heat. Less melanin meant whiter color of body. Diseases like Psoriasis can also cause loss of melanin and formation of scales, resulting in white patches and even totally white body.

Many historians accept that Aryans migrated from North Europe to North West India, through Central Asia and Afghanisthan. Great Indian patriot late LOkmAnya bAla gangAdhar tilak too felt that Aryans came to India from polar regions. I too (this blogger) personally felt that Aryans might have come from LaTvia, Lithuania, Finland or Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden), or in other words Baltics and North Sea.

Many Indians, owing to excess patriotism, seem to believe that Aryans were natives of India. They feel that India had great civilisation when Europeans didn't still learn how to clothe themselves and that Aryans dispersed from India to various parts of the world and taught civilisation to the whole world. They quote some common words between English and Sanskrit, such as mother , father, brother, two, three, etc. as evidence of Sanskrit being the mother of English. They ignore that the commonality of vocabulary was due to the common parentage of Indo European prototype, which apparently had a Scandinavian origin.

Loving one's own country and its civilisation is good. At the same time, we cannot ignore facts or indications which may lead us to probable facts. Indians forget that they are a mixed population and a sort of hybrid race, a result from the interminging of numerous races including Aryans. They seem to believe that if they concede the proof of Aryans having come from North Europe, it may tantamount to their accepting that they were foreigners living in India. For this reason only, they advocate the theory that Aryans originated in India and spread to the whole world.

When I raised this issue of Aryan foreign origin with some of my friends, they banged me for being swept away by British stories. I withdrew at that moment, because I didn't have sufficient solid evidence.

This verse probably serves as one of such evidences.

If Aryans were natives of India, they ought to have regarded black as natural color, instead of white. In the above verse, the highest caste- brahmins (priests) were given the white color, second down rulers were given red color, agriculturists and merchants were given yellow color, and the lowest caste sUdras were given black color.

European Aryans who migrated into India were very conscious of the white and red color of their bodies. The Indian natives, whom the Aryans conquered, but were admitted into Aryan Society at the lowest rung, naturally had their melanin and their black color. They were called SUdras and entrusted with menial duties.

Aryans didn't want their white and red complexions to be lost by constant marrital relationships with native Indians. For this reason only, they seemed to have developed the anulOma and vilOma marriage systems. For the information of readers, I briefly explain below the anuloma and vilOma marriages.

anulOma marriages: An upper caste man can marry a girl of a lower caste. Example: A brahmin can marry a warrior caste girl, a agri-trader caste girl, a servant caste girl. A warrior caste man can marry, an agri-trader girl, and a servant caste girl. An agri-trader man can marry a servant caste girl. Though anulOma marriages were allowed, they were not encouraged because descendents would have had darker colors. People born from anulOma marriages were given lower social status calling them sUtas (charioteers), mAgadhAs (court flatterers), parasavas et al. At every stage they were insulted. Readers can recall how bhIma insulted karNa, a sUta comparing him to a dog tasting sacrificial food.

vilOma marriages: A lower caste man marrying an upper caste girl. This was never permitted (exception: Priest SukrAcArya forcing king yayAti to marry his daughter (Sukra's daughter) dEvayAni, a vilOma marriage). Descendents from vilOma marriages were condemnded as canDAlAs and forced to stay outside villages, eating dead animals, and cleaning/tanning animal carcasses and skins.

Prohibiting vilOma marriages had another nefarious intent. White men through anulOma can conveniently use darker native girls for satisfying their lust. At the same time, the same white men did n't want their sisters and daughters to be attracted by handsome darker men of Indian native races. Even in 21st Century some of these remnants continue, in what we now call as HONOR KILLINGS where relatives do not tolerate inter-caste marriages and kill loving couples.

Thus it is clear that Aryans discriminated people on the basis of body color. If Aryans are considered as natives of India, this racial discrimination also will have an Indian origin. In that case, should we say that when the entire world was not civilised enough to wear a loin cloth, and when Indians taught them to wear it by migrating to Europe, Indian Native Aryans also taught racial discrimination to Europeans and Americans?

Absolutely absurd.

Probable fact: Racial discrimination is a trait of Europe. Regarding Aryans as European migrants to India, with their obsession with white body color, and disdain to black Indian natives of those days, seems to be more meaningful.

Thursday, August 15, 2013

#056 Who were present in yudhishThira's rajasUya sacrifice?

Vol.2 sabhA parva-02-004-008.
List of VIPs of thosE days, prEsEnt in yudhishThira court.
asito dEvalah satyah sarpamAlI mahASirAh-
arvAvasuh sumitraS ca maitrEyah Sunako balih
bako dAlbhyah sthUlaSirAh krishNadvaipAyanah Sukah-
sumantur jaiminih pailo vyAsaSishyAs tathA vayam
tittirir yAgnavalkyaS ca sasuto lomaharshaNah-
apsuhomyaS ca dhaumyaS ca ANImANDavyakauSikau
Sabha004 011 dAmoshNIshas traivaNiS ca parNAdo ghaTajAnukah-
maunjAyano vAyubhakshah pArASaryaS ca sArikau
balavAkah SinIvAkah sutyapAlah kritaSramah-
jAtUkarNah SikhAvAmS ca subalah pArijAtakah
parvataS ca mahAbhAgo mArkaNDEyas tathA munih-
pavitrapANih sAvarNir bhAlukir gAlavas tathA
janghAbandhuS ca raibhyaS ca kopavEgaSravA bhriguh-
haribabhruS ca kauNDinyo babhrumAlI sanAtanah
kakshIvAn auSijaS caiva nAcikEto atha gautamah-
paingo varAhah Sunakah SANDilyaS ca mahAtapAh
E karkaro vENujanghaS ca kalApah kaTha Eva ca
Sabha004 016 munayo dharmasahitA dhritAtmAno jitEndriyAh-
EtE cAnyE ca bahavo vEdavEdAngapAragAh
upAsatE mahAtmAnam sabhAyAm rishisattamAh-
kathayantah kathAh puNyA dharmagnAh Sucayo amalAh
Yudhishthira was performing rAjasUya sacrifice.
list of sages sitting in maya assembly. Upon the seats in that palace sat, along with the Pandavas, Rishis and kings that came from various countries, viz., Asita and Devala, Satya, Sarpamali and Mahasira; Arvavasu, Sumitra, Maitreya, Sunaka and Vali; Vaka, Dalvya, Sthulasira, Krishna-Dwaipayana, and Suka Sumanta, Jaimini, Paila, and the disciples of Vyasa, viz., ourselves; Tittiri, Yajanavalkya, and Lomaharshana with his son; Apsuhomya, Dhaumya, Animandavya; and Kausika; Damoshnisha and Traivali, Parnada, and Varayanuka, Maunjayana, Vayubhaksha, Parasarya, and Sarika; Valivaka, Silivaka, Satyapala, and Krita-srama; Jatukarna, and Sikhavat. AlAmba and Parijataka; the exalted Parvata, and the great Muni Markandeya; Pavitrapani, Savarna, Bhaluki, and Galava. Janghabandhu, Raibhya, Kopavega, and Bhrig. Harivabhru, Kaundinya, Vabhrumali, and Sanatana, Kakshivat, and Ashija, Nachiketa, and Aushija, Nachiketa, and Gautama; Painga, Varaha, Sunaka, and Sandilya of great ascetic merit: Kukkura, Venujangha, Kalapa and Katha; these virtuous and learned Munis with senses and souls under complete control, and many others as numerous, all well-skilled in the Vedas and Vedangas and conversant with (rules of) morality and pure and spotless in behaviour, waited on the illustrious Yudhishthira, and gladdened him by their sacred discourses.
ybrao-a-donkey‷s perceptions The above Sanskrit verses from vyAsa mahAbhArata, and gangUli‷s English translation, indicate that none of the great sages of mahAbharata period bore the suffix 'Ananda' in their names. Why? Probably it was not a custom.
When did it start a)in Indian history b)in Hinduism c)in Buddhism?

The ShankaracArya tradition swAmijis of the four monasteries i.e. pUri, SringEri-kanci, dvAraka, and badri, wear these ANANDA, BHARATI, SARASWATI suffixes in their names. How did vivEkAnanda take his name from the ruler of khEtri, after wearing out two/three other Ananda names, apart from paramahamsa? Paradox is, in spite of wearing the name ANANDA (joy), vivEkAnanda‷s 1898-1902 life was full of misery, some his own creation, some the acts of environment (which vivEkAnanda termed karma).

None of the nearly 115000 verses of the Epic mahAbhArata contains a single name of sages/monks ending with Ananda. SatAnanda‷s name was mentioned at one place, but he was a house-holder-sage.

The first four apostles of Adi ShankarAcArya did not have names ending with Ananda/bhArat/saraswati.
The names : padmapAda (also sananda).
surESwara (manDanamiSra).
hastAmalaka (person with gooseberry in his hands.)
tOTakAcArya.

Even the 13th successor of SringEri monastery of South India, vidyAraNya, who helped in establishing the hampi-vijayanagara-Anegondi empire in 14th Century CE did not have this Ananda suffix.

Today, every modern swAmiji wears. Ananda means supreme bliss. Do the modern swAmijis have supreme bliss by virtue of suffixing Ananda to their names, whereas our ancient sages of mahAbharata time did not have that bliss, because they bore names like kukkuTa (cock), Sunaka (dog), varaha (pig), tittiri (name of a bird)? (Readers, will please see, the list above.)

Why modern swAmIjis do not wear names like kukkuTa, Sunaka, varaha, tittiri? Do they consider these names as abominable/aboriginal/despicable/spurnable?

This post also appears at my other blog vivekanandayb.blogspot.com, because it is important to study the trends in modern Hinduism.

We need not say that all the above sages and priests (brAhmaNas) were feasted with bacon/ham/pork. It seems to be a custom of those days. (to continue).

Wednesday, July 17, 2013

#055 LOOSE TALK NOT RESTRICTED TO KAURAVAS - bhIma tOO indulged in

SANSKRIT ORIGINAL
volume I - Adiparva
 

vaiSampAyana uvAca Adi127 001 tatah srastottarapaTah saprasvedah savepathuh- viveSAdhiratho rangam yashTiprANo hvayann iva || tam Alokya dhanus tyaktvA pitrigauravayantritah- karNo abhishekArdraSirAh SirasA samavandata || tatah pAdAv avacchAdya paTAntena sasambhramah- putreti paripUrNArtham abravId rathasArathih || parishvajya ca tasyAtha mUrdhAnam snehaviklavah- angarAjyAbhishekArdram aSrubhih sishice punah || tam drishTvA sUtaputro ayam iti niScitya pANDavah- Bhimasenas tadA vAkyam abravIt prahasann iva Adi127 006 na tvam arhasi pArthena sUtaputra raNe vadham- kulasya sadriSas tUrNam pratodo grihyatAm tvayA || angarAjyam ca nArhas tvam upabhoktum narAdhama- SvA hutASasamIpastham purodasam ivAdhvare || evam uktas tatah karNah kim cit prasphuritAdharah- gaganastham vinihSvasya divAkaram udaikshata || tato duryodhanah kopAd utpapAta mahAbalah- bhrAtripadmavanAt tasmAn madotkaTa iva dvipah.


CONTEXT AND GIST Princes pANDavas and kauravas were learning archery from preceptor drONa.
drONA arranged an Open exhibition of skills of Princes.
2nd pANDava prince bhIma excelled in wrestling and fighting with mace. kaurava prince duryOdhana too.
3rd pANDava prince arjuna excelled in archery.
At that point of time, son of a charioteer, by name karNa rose up and showed out some of his own skills.
He wanted to have a single combat with arjuna.
Preceptor 2 kripAcarya intervened and said that such contests could only take place between Princes (Kings) and not between unequals.
As karNa was just son of a charioteer, he bent his head in shame.
kaurava Prince 1 duryOdhana stepped in, offered his friendship to karNa, and anointed him as a king of anga kingdom.
Seeing his son coronated as king, karNa`s faster father approached his son, joyfully.
Seeing his father approaching, karNa embraced him and shared his joy.
Here I shall quote from Ganguli`s translation:
Seeing him, Karna left his bow and impelled by filial regard bowed down his head still wet with the water of inauguration. And them the charioteer, hurriedly covering his feet with the end of his sheet, addressed Karna crowned with success as his son. And the charioteer embraced Karna and from excess of affection bedewed his head with tears, that head still wet with the water sprinkled over it on account of the coronation as king of Anga. Seeing the charioteer, the Pandava Bhimasena took Karna for a charioteer's son, and said by way of ridicule, 'O son of a charioteer, thou dost not deserve death in fight at the hands of Partha. As befits thy race take thou anon the whip. And, O worst of mortals, surely thou art not worthy to sway the kingdom of Anga, even as a dog doth not deserve the butter placed before the sacrificial fire.'

Karna, thus addressed, with slightly quivering lips fetched a deep sigh, looked at the God of the day in the skies. And even as a mad elephant riseth from an assemblage of lotuses, the mighty Duryodhana rose in wrath from among his brothers, and addressed that performer of dreadful deeds, Bhimasena, present there, 'O Vrikodara, it behoveth thee not to speak such words. Might is the cardinal virtue of a Kshatriya, and even a Kshatriya of inferior birth deserveth to be fought with. The lineage of heroes, like the sources of a lordly river, is ever unknown. The fire that covereth the whole world riseth from the waters. The thunder that slayeth the Danavas was made of a bone of (a mortal named) Dadhichi. The illustrious deity Guha, who combines in his composition the portions of all the other deities is of a lineage unknown. Some call him the offspring of Agni; some, of Krittika, some, of Rudra, and some of Ganga. It hath been heard by us that persons born in the Kashatriya order have become Brahmanas. Viswamitra and others (born Kshatriyas) have obtained the eternal Brahma. The foremost of all wielders of weapons, the preceptor Drona hath been born in a waterpot and Kripa of the race of Gotama hath sprung from a clump of heath. Your own births, ye Pandava princes, are known to me. Can a she-deer bring forth a tiger (like Karna), of the splendour of the Sun, and endued with every auspicious mark, and born also with a natural mail and ear-rings? This prince among men deserveth the sovereignty of the world, not of Anga only, in consequence of the might of his arm and my swearing to obey him in everything. If there be anybody here to whom all that I have done unto Karna hath become intolerable, let him ascend his chariot and bend his bow with the help of his feet.


MY PERSONAL VIEWS AS BLOGGER We can easily see the loose talk indulged in by bhIma. He had unnecessarily created illwill between himself and karNa. Otherwise, there would have been no need for karNa to hate bhIma or pANDavas. Though karNa was grateful to duryOdhana for raising him from the son of a charioteer to the king of anga, karNa would not have unreasonably hated pANDavas.

Of course, duryOdhana might have tried to kill bhIma by drowning him in rivers and offending him with snake bites. But, this could not be a reason for looking down upon karNa. It can be a cause for hating durYodhana. Not for insulting karNa.
bhIma instead of calling karNa a dog longing to taste the sacrificial butter (a very very bad simile), and insulting him, should have befriended him by offering him some gifts. With the permission of elders, he should offered a kingdom/princehood to karNa, even before duryOdhana offered it.

Thus we can know loose-talk and scoundrel-ity are traits which are inherent traits of prince-hood and royalty.

Wednesday, November 07, 2012

Who laughed and who did not laugh?

Question: Did draupadi laugh when duryOdhana fell in a water fountain at the assembly hall? (maya sabha). Did see comment that a blind man's son was also blind? Did this ultimately lead to her de-clothing and the mahAbhArata war?

Answer:


tatah sphATikatoyAm vai sphATikAmbujaSobhitAm- vApIm matvA sthalam iti savAsAh prApataj jale^
Sabha043006 jale nipatitam drishTvA kimkarA jahasur bhriSam- vAsAmsi ca SubhAny asmai pradadU rAjaSAsanAt^
Sabha043007 tathAgatam tu tam drishTvA bhImaseno mahAbalah- arjunaS ca yamau cobhau sarve te prAhasams tadA.
Sabha043008 nAmarshayat tatas teshAm avahAsam amarshaNah- AkAram rakshamANas tu na sa tAn samudaikshata^
Sabha043009 punar vasanam utkshipya pratarishyann iva sthalam- Aruroha tatah sarve jahasus te punar janAh
dvAram ca vivritAkAram lalATena samAhanat- samvritam ceti manvAno dvAradeSAd upAramat.

ybrems1 From the above verses, readers may observe that bhIma and arjuna laughed at duryOdhana. Not, draupadi. Where is the question of her commenting that a blind man's son would be blind?

ybrems2: Balladeers, Preachers and priests are capable of inserting unproven scenese into narrations, to add spice to their presentations. Can we rely on them?

Thursday, May 03, 2012

Why swapacha (tanner) and canDAla should be excluded?

Sage atri was said to be 'intellect-born' son of the Creator brahma.

Sage nimi was one sage, of the atri dynasty.

Sage nimi lost his son.

nimi performed a shrAddha (ancestor feeding and worship) for his son. He invited seven priests and fed them on seats spread with kusa grass.

nimi, suddenly started feeling that he had done something wrong.

He recalled Sage 'atri' who was his first ancestor.

Sage atri appeared before nimi and gave him the 'dos and don'ts' of ancestor worship.

(To continue.)

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Part 10 of mAdhavi's story - TTD has changed what viSvAmitra had said

TTD is the second richest prayer house in the world after the Vatican. TTD's full name is well known -Tirumala Tirupati DevasthAnams.

The deity at the place is Lord vEnkateswara, an incarnation of Lord VishNu, as per legends.

The temple has a TV channel by name SVBC full form: Sri Venkateswara Bhakti Channel.

SVBC very popular in India and abroad.

SVBC broadcast a part of the mAdhavi's story at prime time (approx. 8 p.m.) on the 19th April 2012.

We need not say that they have changed the dialogues.

The most disturbing thing in the episode is, they have added a lecture to Sage viSvAmtra.

Context: gAlava brought mAdhavi plus the 600 horses he could obtain by exchanging her, to his preceptor visvAmitra. He fell at his guru's feet, requesting to accept them, in lieu of the 800 horses asked by him.

At that time what should have been viSvAmitra's reply, as per vyAsa mahAbharata?

Ganguli's translation: Viswamitra then, beholding Galava in the company of the bird, and that highly beautiful maiden, said, Why, O Galava, didst thou not give me this maiden before? Four sons then, sanctifiers of my race, would all have been mine alone.

I accept this maiden of thine for begetting upon her one son.

As regards the steeds, let them graze in my asylum.

Saying this, Viswamitra of great effulgence began to pass his time happily with her.

Sanskrit verses: chapter 117 verse 014 to 016.
nArada uvAca
viSvAmitras tu tam drishTvA gAlavam saha pakshiNA-
kanyAm ca tAm varArohAm idam ity abravId vacah

kim iyam pUrvam EvEha na dattA mama gAlava-
putrA mamaiva catvAro bhavEyuh kulabhAvanAh

pratigrihNAmi tE kanyAm EkaputraphalAya vai-
aSvAS cASramam AsAdya tishThantu mama sarvaSah





ybrems
Readers can see in part 9 of mAdhavi's story ybrem about viSvAmitra's reply.
Readers, can try to procure a video of the SVBC channel's serial, directed by Shri dharmavarapu SubrahmaNyam, and study viSvAmitra's preach to gAlava. I am unable to reproduce it verbatim as I do not have the video or the script.


Its gist as I heard and perceived on the TV: Critics in future generations will fault the story of mAdhavi as something undesirable. They do not know the subtle principles of ethics and morals imparted in mahAbharata. They will pass comments etc. etc.
(hence his hesitation to accept mAdhavi).


This lecture inserted by TTD is contrary to media ethics. As per the current media ethics and professional codes, (of course not practised by the commercial broadcasting and print media), they have to separate facts and their comments/opinions separate. In other words, if TTD wanted to defend the horse trading and women trafficking which had taken place in the mahAbharata story, they should have added a strip of an epilogue in the end, containing a speech/conversation/discussion by its director /scholars about the interpretation of the transactions which had taken place in mAdhavi's story. TTD is free to make any comments, but it cannot load them on people through the mouth of viSvAmitra.


Sanskrit vyAsa mahAbharata is a very lengthy epic, and people do not have the interest/skill/time to study it in depth by going through the original text. They, therefore, depend on TV serials for knowing anything. They cannot disbelieve what an official channel run by a Trust managed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh. Hence, the SVBC channel, the TTD, and the Govt. of A.P. have a duty to broadcast a corrective announcement that what viSvAmitra said in their serial was their own addition.

for mahAbharata related stories, TTD will have to confine itself to Sanskrit vyAsa mahAbharata only and no other purANA (other chronicles) which have their own narrations in tune with their own goals.


ybrem 2
A simple regret by TTD/ or the director of the serial, for what had happened in mahAbharata would have been sufficient, as such things are not happening in Hinduism today. Or even silence would have been sufficient , after presenting the mahAbharata conversations verbatim.

Defending an undefendable thing, will only add more soot to the cause of Hinduism and its temples.

This 'defending undefendable things' may be happening in all the religions of the world, yet it can be a defence for any one particular religion. This is because two mistakes do not make a thing 'right'.

Saturday, April 14, 2012

mAdhavi's story part-9 - Was viSvAmitra's intellect well-driven or not?

ybrem: Sage viSvAmitra was said to have gifted the great chant 'gAyatri mantra' to India. But his intellect didn't seem to have been motivated well by the great chant. The object of the chant was to get the intellect illuminated by being motivated towards realisation of what is 'sat' and 'asat' (what is eternal and what is transient).

This gAyatri mantram is very important in the lives of chaste and pious persons in India, even today. This mantra is taught to every person who undergoes the 'thread' ceremony. This ceremony is strictly to take place when a boy is eight years old, when his intellect starts to learn things from the environment. Father/spiritual teacher of the boy imparts the mantra three times into the ear of the boy, without being heard by others. The boy starts meditating on the mantra, everyday and tries to sharpen his intellect which is driven by the illuminating God. The illumination of his intellect progresses in tandem with his learning of other subjects from the teacher. In the 20/21st Centuries, this practice of thread-wearing ceremony at the early age of 8 got deferred to ages 20-40. People are undergoing the ceremony as a compulsory step before wedding ceremony. The sanctity of the mantra- to get the intellect illumined -along with education is thus lost.

This ceremony is also called 'upa-nayanam'. upa='sub'. nayanam='eye'. With 'upanayanam', a person gets his third eye. This third eye is the eye of 'gnAna' or 'knowledge/awareness.' This eye is the illumination of the intellect.


Anyway, in our mAdhavi's story of viSvAmitra and GalavA's, can we say that viSvAmitra acted like a Sage whose intellect was illumined and driven, after thousands of years of penance?



Context:
srIkrishNa went to dhritarAshTra's court as emissary of pAnDavas.
After his initial message to kauravas, elders counselled duryOdhana to accept truce.
nArada counselled duryOdhana, using about 390 verses that obduracy, obstinacy and persistency can cause harm. To illustrate, nArada narrated the story of sages viSvAmitra's disciple gAlava's and mAdhavi's story.

Disciple gAlava was persistent in asking viSvAmitra, to pay his teacher's fee. Sage viSvAmitra asked gAlava to get 800 moon-light white horses with just one black spot on their ears.

On the advice of garuDa (kite-God), gAlava approached king yayAti. yayAti didn't have the white horses with just one spot on ear. He gave his daughter mAdhavi to gAlava, giving him freedom to exchange her for horses.

gAlava exchanged mAdhavi with three childless kings for 200 horses each for one year term each with the avowed object of begetting a son through her. They got sons and returned her to gAlava as per arrangement with each king.

Unable to procure the remainder 200 white horses, gAlava, on advice of kite-God, fell at the feet of viSvAmitra, praying him to accept the 600 horses + mAdhavi in lieu of the balance 200 horses.


Vol. 5 udyoga parva (Vol. of efforts for war between pAnDavas and kauravas)
chapter 117 verse 014 to 016.
nArada uvAca
viSvAmitras tu tam drishTvA gAlavam saha pakshiNA-
kanyAm ca tAm varArohAm idam ity abravId vacah
^
|| kim iyam pUrvam EvEha na dattA mama gAlava-
putrA mamaiva catvAro bhavEyuh kulabhAvanAh


pratigrihNAmi tE kanyAm EkaputraphalAya vai-
aSvAS cASramam AsAdya tishThantu mama sarvaSah

Viswamitra then, beholding Galava in the company of the bird, and that highly beautiful maiden, said, Why, O Galava, didst thou not give me this maiden before? Four sons then, sanctifiers of my race, would all have been mine alone.

I accept this maiden of thine for begetting upon her one son.

As regards the steeds, let them graze in my asylum.

Saying this, Viswamitra of great effulgence began to pass his time happily with her.



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*Why does a sage like viSvAmitra need horses, that too exotic horses? He could have sent the horses to yayAti or some other king. Maintaining a stable of 800 horses is not easy. Did he have slaves or workers to feed and massage the horses?

*viSvamitra already had some wives, with names: Haimavati, Shalavati, Drishadwati, Renu. He had nearly 100 sons through them.

*Besides, he had his lustful days with the heaven's nymph mEnaka.
*Should he now need mAdhavi also?

*We have to see the manner in which viSvAmitra spoke to gAlava: "O Galava, didst thou not give me this maiden before? Four sons then, sanctifiers of my race, would all have been mine alone." Why so much craze for sons?


ybrem 2
viSvAmitra was said to have gifted the gAyatri mantra (chant of Goddess gAyatri).
He was said to have incorporated it into the 3rd manDala (chapter?) of rigvEda, the first of the four sacred scriptures.

Om Bhuh(r) Bhuvah Svah
Tat Savitur varEnyam
Bhargo dEvasya dhImahi
dhiyo yo naha PracOdayAt.

Gist: The illuminator of the three worlds and the cleanser of sins, the Greater Sun God, enlighten and motivate our intellects.

Notes: There are different versions of the translations, with numerous interpretations ranging from "extremely reverent" to "non-chalant". I have tried a middle path.

What we are interested in this particular blog post? : A Sage who could give such a beautiful verse like gAyatri mantram, how could he stoop to so low a level as to ask for 800 horses or accepting a lady who was already the object of intercourse of three other kings. viSvAmitra's lust for exostic horses drove gAlava to trade women for horses.

Was the intellect (dhI= intellect) of viSvAmitra, being properly driven-steered- and motivated (pracOdiyAt= drive-motivate-steer)?

If God savitur/bhargOdEva of the gAyatri mantra properly drove viSvAmitra, he would have sent mAdhavi back to her father yayAti immediately, with due apologies. He would not have lived happily with her for one more year, in addition to the three years of the three kings who used mAdhavi earlier.

Lofty chants, but mean behavior, how can they go hand in hand?

Monday, April 09, 2012

mAdhavi's story, Part 8, Was the Chief God of Heavens, just a killer of pigs?

vyAsa mahAbhArata Sanskrit verse reference in udyOga parva (vol. 5), chapter 106, verse 015.


prokshitA yatra bahavo varAhAdyA mrigA vanE-
SakrENa yatra bhAgArthE daivatEshu prakalpitAh


Ganguli's English translation:
It was in that region that myriads of boars and other animals were killed by Sakra (Indra) and offered as sacrificial portions unto the gods.



Context
Sri Krishna went to Dhritarashtra's court, as an emissary of pAnDavas. This scene is popularly known as 'Sri krishNa rAyAbAram' and was very popular as a play in the pre-cinema days, and as a film component during the silver screen era.

After Sri Krishna briefly spoke, Sage kanva gave a lengthy counselling to durYOdhana. An important component of this counselling was the story of 'garuDa garva bhangam' (Taming the pride of the 'kite-God garuDa', a vehicle of Supreme God vishNu.

Then nArada gave another lengthy discourse, which included mAdhavi's story. (alias gAlava's story)

gAlava had to procure 800 white horses and satisfy his teacher. gAlava's friend kite-God garuDa was counselling gAlava. As a part of that counselling, he took gAlava on his back on a tour of the entire world. First East, then South, then West and finally North.

This verse is part of Guide garuDa's presentation of the EAST side of the Earth to gAlava.

This verse says that the Chief of Gods 'Indra' (or Sakra, vAsava) killed bahavo = numerous pigs in sacrifices to Gods.


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The first and foremost sacred book of Hindus: Rig vEda contains 1029 verses.
Kind courtesy Wikipedia and Griffith:

RigvEdic Gods by prominence

List of Rigvedic deities by number of dedicated hymns, after Griffith (1888). Some dedications are to paired deities, such as Indra-Agni, Mitra-Varuna, Soma-Rudra, here counted doubly.


Indra 289
Agni 218
Soma 123 (most of them in the Soma Mandala)
Vishvadevas 70
the Asvins 56
Varuna 46 [1]
the Maruts 38
Mitra 28[1]
Ushas 21
Vayu (Wind) 12
Savitr 11
the Rbhus 11
Pushan 10
the Apris 9
Brhaspati 8
Surya (Sun) 8
Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth) 6, plus 5.84 dedicated to Earth alone
Apas (Waters) 6
Adityas 6
Vishnu 6
Brahmanaspati 6
Rudra 5
Dadhikras 4
the Sarasvati River / Sarasvati 3
Yama
Parjanya (Rain) 3
Vāc (Speech) 2 (mentioned 130 times, deified e.g. in 10.125)
Vastospati 2
Vishvakarman 2
Manyu 2
Kapinjala (the Heathcock, a form of Indra) 2



ybrems contd.
It is very clear from the above, that rigvEda placed God Indra (other names Sakra,vAsava) on the top with 289 verses, about 25% share.

He is the recipient of all the havis (offerings in all the sacrifices).

VishNu's share was only 8 verses. Shiva was not in the reckoning for havises (offerings in sacrifices). This is the whole story of daksha yagnam (Sacrifice by daksha - where he did not invite God Siva (other name rudra) for receiving the havises).

Indra is thus supposed to be recipient of sacrificed animals.


How is it that he was slaughtering swine, performing sacrifices at places located in the Eastern direction, and offering them to Gods? Who were the Gods? vishNu? rudra? Creator brahma?

Who degraded Indra from the chief God of rigvEda to a slaughterer of pigs to satisfy other Gods? Were the priests confused? Apparently not.

The Kings who claimed to be followers of Lord VishNu and the royal priests of such kings, deliberately degraded him to slayer of pigs and made him stealer of sacrificial animals (See ambarIsha's story in vAlmIki Ramayana). rAmayana made indra a debauch with the story of his entering into the cottage of gautama and his wife ahalya. mahA bhAgavata made indra to fall at the feat of krishNa in the episode of gOvardhana hill lifting by krishNa. indra's role was slightly better in mahAbhArata, as father of pAnDava prince arjuna.

ybrem 2
If indra could slay pigs and offer to Gods, what was wrong in yudhishThira doing the same thing in rAjasUya sacrifice and aSvamEdha sacrfice? So-- a paradise of ham eaters! Won't Gods be just satisfied with one or a few pigs? Why do they need 'bahavO'? Ganguli aptly called it 'myriad'. The phrase 'varaha -adya - mriga' is to be kept in mind. Adya = etcetera . What were these etceteras, apart from bores and deer? monkeys? parakeets? peacocks? crocodiles? Imagine the God Indra holding the animal in his left hand and brandishing his dagger/sword (called vajrAyudha) in the wind to behead the pigs and monkeys! Animal blood may be flowing on the ground, like rivulets with splinters of flesh and bone strewn all around!

I do not find any difference between a tent/hall for sacrifices and a Chicago slaughter-house or the kitchen of an Inter-Continental Hotel in Hong Kong serving frogs, snakes, and stinky Tofu. Smithfield Packing Company, Tar Heel, North Carolina, according to Wikipedia, has a facility to butcher 32,000 pigs a day. They can take Lord Indra as their principal adviser!

Monday, April 02, 2012

Part 7 of mAdhavi's story - When did vasishTha die?

Sanskrit mahAbharata verse in mAdhavi's story, told by nArada
Sanskrit version you can see in Part 2 of this mAdhavi's story
--------------------------------------------------------------
Vol. 5 udyOga parva (war preparations), chapter 106, verse 13.

atra pUrvam vasishThasya
paurANasya dvijarshabha-
sUtiS caiva pratishThA
ca nidhanam ca prakASatE

Ganguli's translation
I gave in Part 3 of this mAdhavi's story

It was here, O bull among the twice-born, that the birth, growth, and death of the ancient Vasishtha took place.

Context: Galava was worried about getting the 800 white horses asked by visvAmtra. Galava's friend kite-God garuDa appeared before him.

garuDa saw the predicament of his friend. garuDa assured him that he spoke to vAsava-i.e. Indra /his brother VishNu about gAlava. Ganguli's translation: "Before this, I spoke to him on thy behalf and he hath been pleased to grant my wishes.". There is some problem in translation here: "vibhavaS cAsti mE vipra vAsavAvarajo dvija- pUrvam uktas tvadartham ca kritah kAmaS ca tEna mE". Any way, it will not make much difference whether Indra or VishNu who agreed to grant the wishes of garuDa and gAlava.

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If Indra/VishNu had granted wishes of garuDa/gAlava, this unhappy incident of repeatedly exchanging the girl mAdhavi for horses could have been avoided. What did Indra/VishNu/garuDa really do to really help gAlava? Nothing, except asking him to go and beg kings. This, anyway he would have done.

ybrem 2
The kite-god carried his friend gAlava to all the four directions, explaining the important features of each particular direction EAST, SOUTH, WEST AND NORTH. nArada (presumably temple preachers), unnecessarily enlarged nArada's advice to duryOdhana, by including the geography of the four directions. By explaining geography, how will duryOdhana's mind change?

This inserting extraneous things approach of later-day preachers, helps us immensely the geographical perceptions of people during the period of evolution of mahAbharata, which was devoid of highways, railways, cars and buses, trains, airports, aircrafts and airways. What was beyond say a day's journey by walk/bullock cart/horse carriage becomes a figment of fantasy and imagination. This helps us to assess the socio-economic-industrial-trade conditions of those days.

The above verse pertaining to death of Sage VasishTha relates to the direction "EAST".



I am not sure about Ganguli's translation. I am unable to trace any scripture/book/vAlmiki rAmAyan which mentions the death of Vasishtha, timing of death, cause of death, whether natural or some visvAmitra's cruel act or something else. I request the readers for references about vasishTha's death, other than what I am furnishing below.


Ganguli seems to have ignored the word 'sUti'. 'sUti' means 'son' vasishTha's 100 sons, Sakti (father of parAsara) died, even when vasishTha was alive. Were garuDa, nArada, VaisampAyana, gangUli, referring to the death of vasishTha's sons in the DIRECTION OF 'EAST'? Seems so.

I do not find any fault with Ganguli's translation because his work was a nearly impossible monumental job of explaining the 115000 verses of mahAbharata with hundreds of footnotes.


I could catch from internet, one reference to vasishTha's death. This reference was ramaNa maharshi's discourses. I have not so far touched ramana maharshi's preachings and practices in my blogs.


Here is the link: http://bhagavan-ramana.org/ramana_maharshi/books/sp/sp074.html.

This is ramana maharshi's talk No. 261. One devotee of ramana maharshi raised the complicated question of soul's fate after death. ramana maharshi told the story of vasishTha's death and his rebirth as King Padma. The story was said to have been told by Goddess saraswati (Goddess of Learning and, creator's wife)
to one 'Lila' w/o King Padma, who was said to be the reincarnation of vAsiShTh'a.

He even made out Lila 1 and Lila 2 to show that soul can exist at two locations simultaneously. One gets an impression that ramana maharshi wanted to impress on his devotee that a soul can be reborn in body No. 2, even before it leaves body No. 1.

yb rems

Two important questions arise:

1. Sage vasishTha is revered as the greatest of not only the seven sages (saptarshis), but also the greatest of all the Indian Sages. He was guru of Rama. He was said to have taught the great philosophical treatise 'yOga vAsishTham' to rAma. How can such 'greatest Sage' have rebirth just as an ordinary king? He should directly have had liberation i.e. 'mOksham' (relief from the cycle of births and deaths.). arundhati was also a pious woman. She could also get liberation from rebirths.

Otherwise, what is the sanctity of being vasishTha maharshi (=Great Sage)? Hindu mythology has stories of ordinary, sometimes even habitually sinful persons, being re-born as kings. vasishTha's disciple Shri rAma as per scriptures gave liberation (=freedom from birth-rebirth cycle) even to ordinary animals. How Shri Rama could allow vasishTha to be reborn just as an ordinary king and that too twice?

2. In ramaNa maharshi's story vasishTha was first reborn as king "vidurata". While "vidurata" was still alive, he was reborn as king "padma". In both the cases, his wife was 'LIla". For avoiding confusion, ramaNa maharshi renamed them as LIla 1 and LIla 2.

This brain-teaser, I had to break through by searching for a full text of yOga vASISTHA on the net. As full text was not available, a 'laghu yOga vASISHtha English translation of 742 pages could be downloaded. Link:

Quote from the book: Page 140. Translation by Shri Narayanaswami.

It is, in such an incomparable Mayavic dome, that there was a town called Girigrama in the midst of a certain tract on one side and that, in a certain spot of that dome. That town was a fertile tract boasting of the possession of hills, rivers and forests. There lived in it a great Brahmin householder who had sacrificial fire and was well versed in Sastras and Dharmas, away from the reach of kings. He equalled Vasistha in beauty, wealth, age, humility, actions, and education, but could not be called Vasistha himself in real knowledge. In name at least, this Brahmin may be called Vasistha. The name of her who worshipped his feet (as his wife) was equal unto Arundhati but had not her knowledge; yet she passed by the name of Arundhati. The wife of Vasistha was this lady on Bhu loka (earth) but the true Arundhati in Deva loka."

The above story of duplicate namesake VasishTha's death story was told by Goddess Saraswati to LIla. This ramaNa-maharshi's lecture to his devotees was about the death and rebirth of the duplicate VasishTha and not the original Vasishtha. I am not sure how listeners took it, but ramana maharshi should have cautioned his devotees that his story was about the Brahmin duplicate Vasishtha living in Girigrama and not the IkshvAku Guru VasishTha living in Ayodhya. Else, devotees might have taken it as that it was original Sage vasishTha who died.

The Yoga vAsishTha was a discourse by original vasishTha to Sri Rama. Obviously, he cannot tell a story about his own death and incarnation to Shri Rama.

Ganguli's translation of the direction EAST being the place of death of VasishTha, it is difficult to sustain. We can, by the use of the word 'sUti', the deaths must be those of his sons.

Link for those who want to download laghu yOga vAsishTha 742 pages, quite an informative book: link from google search -click here.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Part 6 of Madhavi's story - Narada's list of couples made for each other


7 tathety uktvā dvijaśreṣṭhaḥ prādāt kanyāṃ mahīpateḥ
vidhipūrvaṃ ca tāṃ rājā kanyāṃ pratigṛhītavān
8 reme sa tasyāṃ rājarṣiḥ prabhāvatyāṃ yathā raviḥ
svāhāyāṃ ca yathā vahnir yathā śacyāṃ sa vāsavaḥ
9 yathā candraś ca rohiṇyāṃ yathā dhūmorṇayā yamaḥ
varuṇaś ca yathā gauryāṃ yathā carddhyāṃ dhaneśvaraḥ
10 yathā nārāyaṇo lakṣyāṃ jāhnavyāṃ ca yathodadhiḥ
yathā rudraś ca rudrāṇyāṃ yathā vedyāṃ pitāmahaḥ
11 adṛśyantyāṃ ca vāsiṣṭho vasiṣṭhaś cākṣamālayā
cyavanaś ca sukanyāyāṃ pulastyaḥ saṃdhyayā yathā
12 agastyaś cāpi vaidarbhyāṃ sāvitryāṃ satyavān yathā
yathā bhṛguḥ pulomāyām adityāṃ kaśyapo yathā
13 reṇukāyāṃ yatharcīko haimavatyāṃ ca kauśikaḥ
bṛhaspatiś ca tārāyāṃ śukraś ca śataparvayā
14 yathā bhūmyāṃ bhūmipatir urvaśyāṃ ca purūravāḥ
ṛcīkaḥ satyavatyāṃ ca sarasvatyāṃ yathā manuḥ
15 tathā tu ramamāṇasya divodāsasya bhūpateḥ
mādhavī janayām āsa putram ekaṃ pratardanam


The above verses are from the Sanskrit Vyasa Mahabharata, available on the Sacred-Texts.COM website. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/mbs/mbs05115.htm. There, the Chapter N. 115 in Vol. 5 Udyoga Parva or the Volume of War Efforts.

Observe from my post "Part 2 of Madhavi's story" here, which contains the full text of Madhavi's story in Mahabharata. The verses I quoted, tally with the Sacred-Texts. Probably our source is same.

List of ideal couples in the above verses
-----------------------------------------
prabhAvatyAm yathA ravih- -- Sun God with prabhAvati;
svAhAyAm ca yathA vahnir -- Fire God with svAhA devi
SacyAm sa vAsavah -- Indra with SacI dEvi
candraS ca rohiNyAm yathA dhUmorNayA yamah-
varuNaS ca yathA gauryAm yathA carddhyAm dhanESvarah
^
yathA nArAyaNo lakshmyAm jAhnavyAm ca yathodadhih-
yathA rudraS ca rudrANyAm yathA vEdyAm pitAmahah
^

udyOg 115 011 adriSyantyAm ca vAsishTho vasishThaS cAkshamAlayA-
cyavanaS ca sukanyAyAm pulastyah samdhyayA yathA
^
|| agastyaS cApi vaidarbhyAm sAvitryAm satyavAn yathA-
yathA bhriguh pulomAyAm adityAm kaSyapo yathA
^
|| rENukAyAm yathArcIko haimavatyAm ca kauSikah-
brihaspatiS ca tArAyAm SukraS ca SataparvayA
^
|| yathA bhUmyAm bhUmipatir urvaSyAm ca purUravAh-
ricIkah satyavatyAm ca sarasvatyAm yathA manuh
^
|| tathA tu ramamANasya divodAsasya bhUpatEh-
mAdhavI janayAm Asa putram Ekam pratardanam
^

udyOg 115 016 athAjagAma bhagavAn divodAsam sa gAlavah-
samayE samanuprAptE vacanam cEdam abravIt
^
|| niryAtayatu mE kanyAm bhavAms tishThantu vAjinah-
yAvad anyatra gacchAmi SulkArtham prithivIpatE
^
|| divodAso atha dharmAtmA samayE gAlavasya tAm-
kanyAm niryAtayAm Asa sthitah satyE mahIpatih




prabhAvatyAm ravih- -- Sun God with prabhAvati;
svAhAyAm ca vahnir -- Fire God with svAhA devi
SacyAm sa vAsavah -- Indra with SacI dEvi
candraS ca rohiNyAm -- Moon and rOhini
dhUmorNayA yamah- -- God of death with dhUmOrNi
varuNaS ca gauryAm -- Rain/Water God with gauri.
carddhyAm dhanESvarah -- God of Wealth kubEra with riddhi
nArAyaNo lakshmyAm -- Lakshmi with VishNu
jAhnavyAm ca yathodadhih-- God of Ocean with jAhnavi
rudraS ca rudrANyAm -- rudra with rudrANi (presumably Siva with pArvati)
vEdyAm pitAmahah -- Creator with vEdi (probably sarasvati)
adriSyantyAm ca vAsishTho -- Sakti s/o vaSiShTha with adriSyanti
vasishThaS cAkshamAlayA- -- vaSishTha with arundhati
cyavanaS ca sukanyAyAm -- chyavana with sukanya
pulastyah samdhyayA -- pulastya with sandhya
agastyaS cApi vaidarbhyAm -- agastya with lOpAmudra
sAvitryAm satyavAn - -- satyavan with sAvitri (satI SAvitri fame)
bhriguh pulomAyAm -- bhrigu with pulomi
adityAm kaSyapo -- kaSyapa with aditi (Mother Indra, VishNu)
rENukAyAm rcIko -- jamadagni with rENuka
haimavatyAm ca kauSikah- -- viSvAmitra with haimavati
brihaspatiS ca tArAyAm -- Brihaspati (Jupiter) with tAra
SukraS ca SataparvayA -- Sukra with (Sataparva)
bhUmyAm bhUmipatir -- bhUmipati with bhUmi (Vague. Vishnu and BhUmi?)
urvaSyAm ca purUravAh- -- purUrava with UrvaSi
ricIkah satyavatyAm -- ricika (father of jamadagni) with satyavati
ca sarasvatyAm manuh -- manu with sarasvati

This list has total 27 couples.


Let us now compare this list with Ganguli's English translation which I have given in part 3 of mAdhavi's story, at this blog.

Surya with Prabhavati,
Agni with Swaha,
Vasava with Sachi,
Chandra with Rohini,
Yama with Urmila,
Varuna with Gauri,
Kuvera with Riddhi,
Narayana with Lakshmi,
Sagara with Jahnavi,
Rudra with Rudrani,
the Grandsire with Saraswati,
Vasishtha's son Saktri with Adrisyanti,
Vasishtha with Arundhati (called also Akshamala),
Chyavana with Sukanya,
Pulastya with Sandhya,
Agastya with the princess of Vidarbha Lopamudra,
Satyavan with Savitri,
Bhrigu with Puloma,
Kasyapa with Aditi,
Richika's son Jamadagni with Renuka,
Kusika's son Viswamitra with Himavati,
Brihaspati with Tara,
Sukra with Sataprava,
Bhumipati with Bhumi,
Pururavas with Urvasi,
Richika with Satyavati,
Manu with Saraswati,
Dushyanta with Sakuntala,
the eternal Dharma with Dhriti,
Nala with Damayanti,
Narada, with Satyavati,
Jaratkaru with Jaratkaru,
Pulastya with Pratichya,
Urnayus with Menaka,
Tumvuru with Rambha,
Vasuki with Satasirsha,
Dhananjaya (Arjuna) with Kamari,
Rama with the princess of Videha Sita, or
Janardana with Rukmini.

Observe: Ganguli's list has 39 couples. His source might have been Bengal version of Sanskrita mahAbhArata.


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Notable omissions in the West-India version:
1) Sita and Rama
2) Arjuna and kamari - who is this kamari? What is the etymology (origin of the name) ? Definitely she may not be draupadi. She may not be subhadra (krishNa's sister).
3) krishNa and rukmiNi
4) tumburu (celestial singer) with rambha (celestial damsel)
5) UrNAyu with mEnaka. UrNAyu was a gandharva, a leader of6 celestial singing tribe.
6) pulastya with pratIci
7) husband Sage jaratkAru with his wife jaratkAru
8) nArada with satyavati (nArada was telling mAdhavi's story to duryOdhana. Why did nArada omit his own name?)
9) nala with damayanti
10) dharma with dhriti (This 'dharma' seems to be different from the God of Death 'dharma).
11) dushyanta with Sakuntala
12) king of snakes 'Vasuki' with 'SataSirsha'.

These are probably DIFFERENCES ARISING OUT OF GEOGRAPHICAL VERSIONS AND VARIANCES. I shall not make a fuss of this. Readers may make their own deductions and inferences.

What I want to highlight:

Sage gAlava sold Madhavi for 200 horses to king divOdasa (or exchanged or gave her for dower or whatever it may be). The contract was for one year. The King and Madhavi were (or only the king was?) enjoying for one year. Okay. Was this really comparable to the 39 ideal couples quoted by Ganguli and the 27 couples quoted by Bombay version?

Why did nArada compare only divOdasa and mAdhavi with the ideal couples? Why didn't nArada compare the Ayodhya King Haryasva (first fellow who bought mAdhavi) and mAdhavi to the 39/27 ideal couples? Nor did he compare king No.3 usInara + mAdhavi with the 39/27 ideal couples?

Why did nArada omit his own name from the ideal couples list in the Bombay version?
Wasn't nArada a celibate?

If nArada could include his own name, Arjuna's name, krishna's name, (as per Ganguli-Bengal list), why could n't he include some names like dhritarAshTra - gandhAri, visvAmitra - mEnaka, duryOdhana - bhAnumati?

Telugu actor and former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Late NTR made a film named 'dAna vIra SUra karNa', popularly known as DVSK. He filmed even a love song for duryOdhana and bhAnumati. The approximate gist of the song was 'ayyArE vicitram! hE Great spectacle! Kings who remain always busy with political affairs and administrative burdens, spending some time in a secluded corner with their wives, is it not real fun?'

Sage nArada gave a near 350 verse discourse to duryOdhana, which would have taken at least 700 minutes (@ 2 minutes per verse) or about 12 hours. The Epic didn't mention whether duryOdhana went to ease himself to the loo or asked his attendants to bring some water and tiffins/meals to himself and the Sage. Before nArada's discourse, duryOdhana heard kanva's didactics. That would have taken another 2 or 3 hours. duryOdhana didn't revolt against nArada, probably, only because the Prince had already suffered once in the hands of Sage maitrEya, for revolting.

ybrems

nArada telling gAlava's story (mAdhavi's story + 1000 unnecessary things) as a part of his advice to duryOdhana was very inapt and senseless. Consequently, duryOdhana preferred to die in battle rather than face the boredom of discourses by so called elders.

If krishNa, nArada, bhIshma, drONa, kripa, aswatthAma, were convinced that yudhishThira's claim for his share of Kingdom was genuine and just, they should have forced dhritarAshtra to issue a partition decree, granting at least the five villages claimed by pAnDavas. If duryOdhana revolted, bhIShma and other elders should have got duryOdhana, karNa, Sakuni and DuS-Sasana arrested. Or nArada should have used his divine powers (if he had such powers) and cursed duryOdhana to become a stone, then and there.


ybrems
RamayaNa and mahAbhArata were sung by chroniclers in temples and at other public places, with financial patronage from the rulers. Discourses were given by scholars in temples narrating the family trees of the ruling dynasties. The chroniclers and scholars, naturally, had to compare the kings and their women with the top and the best in the heaven. Hence, the comparison with Creator, VishNu, Rudra, Rama, Krishna, Arjuna, Rain God,Fire god, God of Heavens, God of Death, what not! The 39 couples and 27 couples have thus appeared in mahAbhArata, out of context.

Today, human civilisation is trumpeted as greatly advanced and progressing. Media prepares lists. Top 100 influential persons, Top 100 most powerful women, Top 100 ideal couples, Top 100 Universities etc. Won't the include the names of Obama couple, Sarkozi couple, Cameroon couple, Elizabeth and Philip, some Williams and Duchess Cat, Putin and his wife, some pop singer couples, some foot-ballers, some golfers, some Toms, Dicks and Harries who have moolah.

Just as "prostituion' is one of the oldest professions in the world 'PAID NEWS' is also one of the oldest professions in the world.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Part 5 of Madhavi's story: What is the difference between horse trading and dower?

A brief review of the transactions in Madhavi's story:


1. Save Galava went to King YayAti. Yayati gave away his daughter Madhavi to Galava, because YayAti didn't have the 800 white horses. He gave express permission to Galava to exchange her for the 800 horses.

2. Galava first went to king of Ayodhya and gave her to the king, in exchange for a dower (sulkam) of 200 white horses. The King has to get a son through Madhavi and return her to Galava after the work is done.

ybrems
Upto this point it is ok. Reason: It is world-wide custom for fathers of brides and bride-grooms to offer them in marriage, after collecting sulkam or dower or dowry or whatever name you call it. It is not regarded as sales or prostitution, though in reality it is a sale or prostitution.


2. Galava, after one year took back Madhavi from the King of Ayodhya. He, then went to the King of Kasi. He exchanged Madhavi with the King for another 200 horses. The King of Kasi has to keep her for one year and get a son.


ybrems
In case of dowry marriages, the sale takes place only once in life time. If a divorce becomes inevitable or some death takes place, probably a second sale for dowry may take place. But that is not preplanned.

Here Galava took Madhavi back from the King of Ayodhya and sold her to the King of Kasi taking another 200 hearses. This repetitive nature of the transactions is resulting in a business with the girl Madhavi, of course with her and her father's consent.


3. Madhavi gave birth to a son to the King of Kasi. Galava took her back from the King of Kasi and went to Usinara, the King of BhOja Kingdom. Galava exchanged her for another 200 horses with one year tenure.
ybrems
This is the third round of sale. What should we call this? Galava called it dower!


4th round:
Galava could so far collect only 600 horses against his target of 800. Further 200 remain unfulfilled in spite of his efforts. The kite-God Garuda told gAlava that it was impossible to mobilise the balance 200 because there were only 600 such horses in the entire world.

The kite-God advised gAlava to approach the teacher visvAmitra with the 600 horses and mAdhavi, and pray him to accept mAdhavi in lieu of the remainder 200.

gAlava went to teacher visvAmitra and prayed him to accept mAdhavi and the 600 horses and discharge him from his debt.

visVAmitra accepted horses and mAdhavi; lived with her and got a son.

visVAmitra, after the birth of son through mAdhavi, returned her to Galava. visvAmitra went to forest to re-penance.

Galava returned expressed his gratitude to mAdhavi and returned her to her father yayAti.


yayAti then announced a "self-selection of husband meet" for mAdhavi at the confluence of Rivers Ganga and Yamuna. mAdhavi chose Forest as her husband and went to forest.
ybrems

mAdhavi was fortunate. yayAti didn't auction her for the highest bidder.
Why did mAdhavi chose "forest" as her husband? She should have chosen another king for her marriage.
Ans: She might have been thoroughly vexed with the three kings she lived with and the teacher visvAmitra.

Ganguli's translation:

Reducing her body by means of fasts of various kinds and religious rites and rigid vows, she adopted the deer's mode of life.


ybrems
Won't it be better to become a deer, rather than become a baby-producing machine of kings, after being sold for horses?

2. We get news from New York that pimps operate even in Manhattan and offer girls for prostitution on web-pages. Whether it was the mahAbharata period or the 21st Century, women on this Earth have the same fate of 'women trafficking', by whatever name it may be called and for whatever ostensible purpose it is undertaken. They are exchangeable commodities.

Will continue in Part 6..

Thursday, March 08, 2012

Part 4 of Madhavi's story - Was Go Go the reward for 100 years of waiting?

Late Rakta kannIru fame nAgabhUshaNam, a great actor of histrionic talent, said in one Telugu film (my mother tongue), which approximately translates as under. Late Bollimunta Sivaramakrishna, I believe was the dialog writer.

"While leaders are spending their time in LECTURING, people are pulling their lives in STARVATION (unable earn two square meals a day).

A few days back, Shri L.V. Subrahmanyam, the Executive Officer of the TTD - Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, Tirupati, said that we can reach God only by approaching Gurus (preceptors). Mr. Rosaiah, the Governor of Andhra Pradesh was also present on the occasion of the 80th birthday of a Guru. The Governor said that Hindu traditions were great. Well, they are all great people. They can say anything. The job specifications of Governors and I.A.S.Officers, involve lot of lecturing.

We shall come back to our context of Mahabharata and Madhavi's story. What type of Guru was VisvAmitra?

He was royal sage. He wanted to become a Brahmin (priestly) sage. He wanted this approval to come from his bete noire Sage Vasistha. VasishTha and his six other associate Sages arrived to examine VisvAmitra's endurance. VisvAmitra got steaming food ready and he was holding the pot over his head. He did not want to keep it on the ground. The Sages promised to come back shortly and take their food. They made him to wait for 100 years, holding the pot on his head.

VisvAmitra's disciple GAlava waited on his teacher, all these 100 years, serving him faithfully and meeting all his needs. VisvAmitra survived all these 100 years, eating air (vAyu bhakShaNE). Verse 5/104/016.

Obviously, Galava too did not take any food except 'vAyubhakshaN'.

The Sages came back, consumed the steaming food served by visvAmitra, and happily declared that he was a Brahmin Sage.

We shall leave aside the hyperbole of 100 years waiting. It could never have been. Even hundred days wait was not possible.

Anyway, we shall concede. What is the reward did Galava get for his faithfulness and dedication?

It was good that Visvamitra was pleased with Galava's perseverance and released him from service and asked him to go as per his likings. (yathEShTam gachcha gAlava).


So far so good. Did Visvamitra show Galava, the path of self-relisation? What skills did V impart to Galava?

ybrem: We can say with confidence that VisvAmitra cannot show. This is simply because he did not know. He was enamoured with his earthly ambition of securing the approval of Sages for his Brahminhood. In the ladder of realisation, becoming a Brahmin was not a rung at all.


In return for his discharge, Galava wanted to pay his fee (guru dakshiNa), as was the custom of those days. It was good that VisvAmitra did not want anything, as he was already very much pleased.

The youth Galava might have persisted in his request to the teacher for prescribing the last instalment of fees, out of an erroneous belief that only with "fee" the action of 'learning' comes to its fulfilment.

Here, the preceptor could have spent a few moments, imparting true knowledge (gnAna) to Galava. This would have been a true reward for the merit of Galava. The teacher, instead, simply said "Go go!". (SEE the verse 5/104/025 in my post No. 040 reproducing full text of mAdhavi's story.). "gachcha gachchEti acOdayat".

The student was again persistent. Now, the teacher asked the student to bring 800 moon-light-white horses with just one black spot on their ears.

Was it possible for a poor disciple like GAlava?

This Galava, under advice from his friend the kite-demy-God GaruDa, approached the King YayAti for help. YayAti gave his daughter to Galava with a suggestion to him, to exchange her for horses, by gifting her to Kings.

ViSvAmitra was a Great Sage who had undergone the travails of penance. Why did he need 800 horses? Why did he need moon-light colored white horses? Why should there be a black spot on their ears?

These questions, poet vyAsa did not answer. He cannot answer. possibly. Another important point is, it was not Visvamitra the first teacher to ask this type of crazy gift. In verse No. 5/117/004, the Kite-God GaruDa alia SuparNa alias vainatEya, told Galava that earlier, King Gaadhi asked Sage Ruchika to bring a thousand horses of moonlight color with blackspots on ears.


The craze of teachers for rare and precious things did not confine to mahAbhArata period. It extended into the 20th and 21st Century.

It was how, the modern Guru Sathya Sai Baba accumulated hundreds of kilos of gold, silver, diamonds, gems, cars, chariots and helicopters and what not from his disciples!

Tuesday, March 06, 2012

(Part 4 of this serial post) Write something good about MahAbhArata and mAdhavi's story


Question: You have a negative character or a negative style of writing. You always point out deficiencies and shortcomings of Indian Epics ignoring and overlooking all their merits. Before you start writing your feelings on Madhavi's story, write something good about it!


OK, sir.
Here is one important merit of mAdhavi's story.

1. Most Indians do not like begetting female children. (There are some exceptions of castes, families, tribes, and individuals.). For this reason only doctors conducting pre-natal sex identification tests and abortions of female foetuses have minted or probably even now minting money. This is in spite of the Government of India banning such tests and abortions. We also find abandoned female babies in dust bins, buses and bus stands, river banks, trains and railway stations etc. This may be mainly owing to the burden of paying dowry for a daughter's marriage and the heavy wedding expenses and maternity expenses. President, Prime Minister and Women/Child Welfare Ministers make some ceremonial speeches with no sincere intentions.

2. Madhavi's story highlights the advantages and merits of having good daughters and daughter's sons.

Traditional Hindu rituals do not give much importance to daughters and daughter's sons. The English word 'daughter' has an Indo-European origin and the Sanskrit equivalent is 'duhita' (another word putrika is more popular). Duhita's son is 'dauhitra' or daughter's son. Son's son is 'pautra'. Religious ceremonies paricularly funeral and yearly-worship ceremonies give great importance only to father and his predecessors and sons and their successors. That means, all along only "male" rights and duties are recognised.

3. Madhavi's story, exceptionally highlights that dauhitras (daughter's sons) can also contribute to the restitution and upliftment of their ancestors.

4. Demonstration of this in Madhavi's story. Madhavi was the daughter of Emperor YayAti. (Same gentlmen who was the husband of dEvayAni and SharmishTha and the son-in-law of the preceptor of demons SukrAcarya. This story kacha-dEvayAni-yayAti-pUrUrava-yadus is in Adi Parva of mahAbhArata. If that is part I of Yayati'
story, this is the part II of it).

Yayati gave her as a gift to Sage Galava, to enable him to lend her/sell her/marry her off -whatever we may like to call- to other kings, for obtaining dower of moon-white horses with a single blackspot on their ears.

Galava gave lent (rented?) her to three different kings, one by one, for getting the horses.

She accepted her task without demur or expostulation or protest or remonstance or weeping. She got one son for each king and left the son to that king.

After three turns, Galava gifted mAdhavi to his Guru visvAmitra, who too got a son through mAdhavi.

Later he gifted her to Galava. Fortunately, Galava without using her, returned her to yayAti.

yayAti then kept her in a Fair as "svayamvara" (self-selection of groom) as was the custom in those days for princesses.

mAdhavi might have sufficiently been vexed with the three kings and the last one Sage VisvAmitra. She chose "forest" as her husband and lived like a deer in a forest.

Her three royal sons became great kings.

Her father Yayati died and went to heaven, because of his good deeds like great rule of the kingdom, performance of sacrifices, etc.

Yayati was well-respected in heaven. One day in a moment of self-pride, he indulged in self-pride. Pride self-praise seem to have been prohibited qualities and acts in heaven. The keeper of heaven pushed YayAti downwards.

YayAti was falling on the earth, shorn of all his heavenly and royal splendor. Given a choice of selecting the place on earth to fall on, he chose a place where virtuous people met in an assembly.

He was falling on a place where his own daughter's sons were conducting a sacrifice.

To rescue their maternal grand father, mAdhavi's sons gave away all the credits of their meritorious and virtuous acts to yayAti. Madhavi too gave away her own credit balances to her dad. These benevolent transfers of the credits by a daughter and her sons (mAdhavi and her sons) lifted yayAti back to Heaven with full splendor.

Today's Indians, if they were to learn any lesson from MahAbhArata, this is the best lesson-- honor daughters and their sons on par with male descendents.

POST-independence
Of course, after independence some good changes have taken place in Hindu Law in India. Today Hindu daughters and wives have equal property rights on par with other male legal heirs.

Unmarried employed daughters are getting good respect from their parents, when compared to the past. Employed wives too command respect from their husbands, and children. This respect and strength, may partly be, from their earning capacity which is a key element in a Capitalist Economy where money controls behaviors. But this respect and strength must extend to unemployed daughters and wives also. Should stem from genuine love and not love of money earned.

Monday, March 05, 2012

Part 3 of my post on Madhavi's story - Ganguli's English Translation

The following is Ganguli's English Translation of the Sanskrit original given in the previous post.
I shall present a brief gist of this story in my next post, to facilitate you to get a clear idea of what took place.

Udyoga Parva Chapter 104 --Ganguli's chapters renumbered in alignment with the Sanskrit version.

--nArada tendering his advice to duryOdhana --nArada telling the story of YayAti-mAdhavi-Galava-VisvAmitra --After the failure of advice tendered by ParasurAma and Kanwa to Duryodhana: Janamejaya said, Interminably wedded to evil, blinded by avarice, addicted to wicked courses, resolved upon bringing destruction on his head, inspiring grief in the hearts of kinsmen, enhancing the woes of friends, afflicting all his well-wishers, augmenting the joys of foes, and treading the wrong path, why did not his friends seek to restrain him, and why also did not that great friend (of Kuru's race), the holy One with tranquil soul, or the Grandsire tell him anything from affection?

Vaisampayana said, Yes, the holy one did speak.

Bhishma also spoke what was beneficial.

And Narada too said much.

Listen to all that these said.

--Narada's counselling to Duryodhana --Narada telling Galava's story.

Vaisampayana continued, Narada said, 'Persons that listen to the counsels of friends are rare.

Friends again are rare that offer beneficial counsels, for a friend (in need of counsel) is never there where a friend (offering counsel) is.

O son of Kuru's race, I think, the word of friends ought to be listened to.

Obstinacy ought to be avoided; for it is fraught with great evil.

In this connection is cited an old story regarding Galava's having met with disgrace through obstinacy.

In ancient times, in order to test Viswamitra, who was then engaged in ascetic austerities.

Dharma personally came to him, having assumed the form of the Rishi, Vasishtha.

Thus assuming, O Bharata, the form of the one of the seven Rishis, and feigning himself hungry and desirous of eating, he came, O king, to the hermitage of Kausika.

Thereupon, Viswamitra struck with awe, began to cook Charu (which was a preparation of rice and milk).

And in consequence of the care he took in preparing that excellent food, he could not properly wait upon his guest.

And it was not till after the guest had dined on the food offered by the other hermits that Viswamitra succeeded in approaching him with the Charu he had cooked and which was still steaming.

I have already dined; wait here,--were the words that the holy one said.

And having said that the holy one went away.

And thereupon, the illustrious Viswamitra, O king, waited there.

And bearing that food on his head and holding it with his arms, that ascetic of rigid vow stood in his hermitage, still as a post, subsisting on air.

And as he stood there, an ascetic of the name of Galava, from motives of respect and reverence and from affection and desire of doing what was agreeable, began to wait upon him.

And after a hundred years had passed away, Dharma, again assuming the form of Vasishtha, came to Kausika from desire of eating.

And beholding the great Rishi Viswamitra, who was endued with high wisdom, standing there with that food on his head, himself subsisting all the while on air, Dharma accepted that food which was still warm and fresh.

And having eaten that food, the god said,--Gratified am I, O regenerate Rishi.

And saying this, he went away.

And at those words of Dharma, Viswamitra divested of Kshatriyahood because endued with the status of a Brahmana and was filled with delight.

And pleased as he was with the services and devotion of his discipline, the ascetic Galava, Viswamitra, addressed him and said, With my leave, O Galava, go whithersoever thou mayest wish.

Thus commanded by his preceptor, Galava, highly pleased, said in a sweet voice unto Viswamitra of great effulgence, What final gift shall I make thee in consequence of thy services as preceptor? O giver of honours, it is in consequence of the (final) present that a sacrifice becometh successful.

The giver of such gifts obtains emancipation.

Indeed, these gifts constitute the fruit (that one enjoys in heaven).

They are regarded as peace and tranquillity personified.

What, therefore, shall I procure for my preceptor? Oh, let that be said.

The illustrious Viswamitra knew that he had really been conquered by Galava by means of the latter's services, and the Rishi, therefore, sought to dismiss him by repeatedly saying, Go, Go.

But though repeatedly commanded by Viswamitra to go away, Galava still addressed him saying, What shall I give? --Udyoga Parva, Sanskrit chapter 105.

And seeing this obstinacy on the part of ascetic Galava, Viswamitra felt a slight rise of anger and at last said, Give me eight hundred steeds, every one of which should be as white as the rays of the moon, and every one of which should have one ear black.

Go now, O Galava, and tarry not.

' --Narada continuing Galava's story.

Narada said, 'Thus addressed by Viswamitra of great intelligence Galava was filled with such anxiety that he could not sit or lie down, or take his food.

A prey to anxiety and regret, lamenting bitterly, and burning with remorse, Galava grew pale, and was reduced to a skeleton.

And smitten with sorrow, O Suyodhana, he indulged in these lamentations, Where shall I find affluent friends? Where shall I find money? Have I any savings? Where shall I find eight hundred steeds of lunar whiteness? What pleasure can I have in eating? What happiness can be mine in objects of enjoyment? The very love of life is extinct in me.

What need have I of life? Repairing to the other shore of the great ocean, or to the furthest verge of the earth, I will relinquish my life.

Of what use can life be to me? What happiness, without severe exertion, can be his who is poor, unsuccessful, deprived of all the good things of life, and burthened with debt? Death is preferable to life as regards him who having enjoyed the wealth of friends through their friendship for himself, is unable to return their favour.

The religious acts of that man lose their efficacy who having promised to do an act fails to perform it and is thus stained with falsehood.

One that is stained by falsehood cannot have beauty, or children, or power, or influence.

How, therefore, can such a one attain to a blissful state? What ungrateful man hath ever earned fame? Where, indeed, is his place, and where his happiness? An ungrateful person can never win esteem and affection.

Salvation also can never be his.

He that is destitute of wealth is a wretch that can scarcely be said to live.

Such a wretch cannot support his kinsmen and friends.

Unable to make any return for the benefits he receiveth, he certainly meeteth with destruction.

Even I am that wretch, ungrateful, destitute of resources, and stained with falsehood, for having obtained my objects from my preceptor, I am unable to do his bidding.

Having first endeavoured to the utmost, I will lay down my life.

Before this, I never craved for any thing from the very gods.

The deities regard me for this in sacrificial place.

I will go and seek the protection of Vishnu, the divine Lord of the three worlds, of Krishna the great refuge of all who are blessed with protection.

Bowing down unto him, I desire to see that highest of all ascetics, the Eternal Krishna from whom flow all those possessions and enjoyments that are owned by both gods and Asuras.

And while Galava was thus lamenting, his friend Garuda, the son of Vinata, appeared in his sight.

And Garuda, from desire of doing him good, cheerfully addressed him, saying, Thou art a dear friend of mine.

It is the duty of a friend, when himself in prosperity, to look to the accomplishment of the wishes of his friends.

The prosperity that I have, O Brahmana, is constituted by Vasava's younger brother Vishnu.

Before this, I spoke to him on thy behalf and he hath been pleased to grant my wishes.

Come now, we will go together.

I will bear thee comfortably to the other shore of the ocean, or to the furthest extremity of the earth.

Come, O Galava, do not tarry.

'

--Udyoga Parva Sanskrit Chapter 106.

--Narada continuing Galava's story.

--Garuda explaining the contents of East.

'Garuda said, O Galava, commanded I have been by God, who is the cause of all knowledge.

I ask thee, towards which quarter shall I first take thee to see what lie there? The eastern, the southern, the western, or the northern, towards which, O best of regenerate persons, shall I go, O Galava? That quarter towards which Surya the illuminator of the universe first riseth; where, at eve, the Sadhyas engage in their ascetic austerities; where that Intelligence, which pervades the whole universe first springeth; where the two eyes of Dharma, as well as he himself, are stationed; where the clarified butter first poured in sacrifice subsequently flowed all around; that quarter, O best of all regenerate persons, is the gate of Day and Time.

There the daughters of Daksha, in primeval times, gave birth to their children.

There the sons of Kasyapa first multiplied.

That quarter is the source of all the prosperity of the gods, for it was there that Sakra (Indra) was first anointed as the king of the celestials.

It was there, O regenerate Rishi, that both Indra and the gods underwent their ascetic penances.

It is for this, O Brahmana, that this quarter is called Purva (the first).

And because in the earliest of times this quarter was overspread by the Suras, it is for this that it is called Purva.

The gods, desirous of prosperity, performed all their religious ceremonies here.

It was here that the divine Creator of the universe first sang the Vedas.

It was here that the Gayatri was first preached by Surya unto the reciters of that sacred hymn.

It was here, O best of Brahmanas, that the Yajurvedas were delivered by Surya (unto Yajnavalkya).

It was here that the Soma juice, sanctified by boons, was first drunk in sacrifices by Suras.

It was here that the Homa-fires, (gratified by mantras), first drank articles of cognate origin.

[13] It was here that Varuna first repaired to the nether regions, and attained to all his prosperity.

It was here, O bull among the twice-born, that the birth, growth, and death of the ancient Vasishtha took place.

Here first grew the hundred different branches of Om![14] It was here that the smoke-eating Munis are the smoke of sacrificial fires.

It was in that region that myriads of boars and other animals were killed by Sakra (Indra) and offered as sacrificial portions unto the gods.

It is here that the thousand-rayed sun, arising, consumeth, out of ire, all those that are wicked and ungrateful among men and the Asuras.

This is the gate of the three worlds.

This is the path of heaven and felicity.

This quarter is called Purva (east).

We will go hither, if it pleaseth thee.

I shall always do what is agreeable to him who is my friend.

Tell me, O Galava, if any other quarter pleaseth thee, for we will then go there.

Listen now to what I say of another quarter.

'

Udyoga Parva, Sanskrit Chapter 107.

--Narada continuing Galava's story.

Garuda explaining the contents of South.

'Garuda continued, In days of yore, Vivaswat, having performed a sacrifice, gave this quarter away as a present (Dakshina) unto his preceptor.

And it is for this that this region is known by the name of Dakshina (south).

It is here that the Pitris of the three worlds have their habitation.

And, O Brahmana, it is said that a class of celestials subsisting upon smoke alone also live there.

Those celestials also that go by the name of Viswedevas always dwell in this region along with the Pitris.

Worshipped in sacrifices in all the worlds, they are equal sharers with the Pitris.

This quarter is called the second door of Yama.

It is here that the periods allotted to men are calculated in Trutis and Lavas.

[15] In this region always dwell the celestial Rishis, the Pitriloka Rishis, and the royal Rishis, in great happiness.

Here are religion and truth.

It is here that the acts (of persons) exhibit their fruits.

This region, O best of the twice-born, is the goal of the acts of the dead.

It is this region, O best of regenerate persons, whither all must repair.

And as creatures are all overwhelmed by darkness, they cannot, therefore, come hither in bliss.

Here, O bull among regenerate persons, are many thousands of Malevolent Rakshasas in order to be seen by the sinful.

Here, O Brahmana, in the bowers on the breast of Mandara and in the abodes of regenerate Rishis, the Gandharvas chant psalms, stealing away both the heart and the intellect.

It was here that Raivata (a Daitya), hearing the Sama hymns sung in a sweet voice, retired to the woods, leaving his wife and friends and kingdom.

In this region, O Brahmana, Manu and Yavakrita's son together set a limit which Surya can never overstep.

It was here that the illustrious descendant of Pulastya, Ravana, the king of the Rakshasas, undergoing ascetic austerities, solicited (the boon of) immortality from the gods.

It was here that (the Asura) Vritra, in consequence of his wicked conduct, incurred the enmity of Sakra (Indra).

It is in this region that lives of diverse forms all come and are then dissociated into their five (constituent) elements.

It is in this region, O Galava, that men of wicked deeds rot (in tortures).

It is here that the river Vaitarani flows, filled with the bodies of persons condemned to hell.

Arrived here, persons attain to the extremes of happiness and misery.

Reaching this region, the sun droppeth sweet waters and thence proceeding again to the direction named after (Vasishtha), once more droppeth dew.

It was here that I once obtained (for food), a prodigious elephant battling with an enormous tortoise.

It was here that the great sage Chakradhanu took his birth from Surya.

That divine sage afterwards came to be known by the name of Kapila, and it was by him that the (sixty thousand) sons of Sagara were afflicted.

It was here that a class of Brahmanas named Sivas, fully mastering the Vedas, became crowned with (ascetic) success.

Having studied all the Vedas they at last attained eternal salvation.

In this region is the city called Bhogavati that is ruled by Vasuki, by the Naga Takshaka and also by Airavata.

They that have to journey hither (after death) encounter here a thick gloom.

And so thick is that gloom that it cannot be penetrated by either the Sun himself or by Agni.

Worthy of worship as thou art, even thou shalt have to pass this road.

Tell me now if thou wishest to sojourn towards this direction.

Else, listen to an account of the western direction.

'

Udyoga Parva Sanskrit Chapter 108.

--Narada continuing Galava's story, to Duryodhana.

'Garuda said, This quarter is the favourite one of king Varuna, the ruler of the ocean.

Indeed, the lord of the waters had his origin here, and it is hither that sovereignty lieth.

And since it is here that towards the day's end (paschat) the sun dismisseth his rays that this quarter, O best of the twice-born ones, is called the west (paschima).

For ruling over all aquatic creatures and for the protection of the water themselves, illustrious and divine Kasyapa installed Varuna here (as the king of this region).

Quaffing all the six juices of Varuna, the moon, the dispeller of darkness, becometh young again in the beginning of the fortnight.

It was in the quarter, O Brahmana, that the Daityas were routed and bound fast by the wind-god.

And afflicted by a mighty tempest, and breathing hard (as they fled), they at last laid themselves down in this region to sleep (the sleep that knows no waking).

Hither is that mountain called Asta which is the cause of the evening twilight, and which (daily) receiveth the sun lovingly turning towards it.

It is from this quarter that both Night and Sleep, issuing out at the close of day, spread themselves, as if, for robbing all living creatures of half their allotted periods of life.

It was here that Sakra (Indra), beholding (his stepmother) the goddess Diti lying asleep in a state of pregnancy, cut off the foetus (into forty-nine parts), whence sprang the (forty-nine) Maruts.

It is towards this direction that the roots of Himavat stretch towards the eternal Mandara (sunk in the ocean).

By journeying for even a thousand years one cannot attain to the end of those roots.

It is in this region that Surabhi (the mother of cows), repairing to the shores of the extensive lake, adorned with golden lotuses, poureth forth her milk.

Here in the midst of the ocean is seen the headless trunk of the illustrious Swarbhanu (Rahu) who is always bent upon devouring both sun and the moon.

Here is heard the loud chanting of the Vedas by Suvarnasiras, who is invincible and of immeasurable energy, and whose hair is eternally green.

It is in this region that the daughter of Muni Harimedhas remained transfixed in the welkin in consequence of Surya's injunction couched in the words--Stop, Stop.

Here, O Galava, wind, and fire, and earth, and water, are all free, both day and night, from their painful sensations.

It is from this region that the sun's course begins to deviate from the straight path, and it is in this direction that all the luminous bodies (the constellations) enter the solar sphere.

And having moved for twenty-eight nights with the sun, they come out of the sun's course to move in accompaniment with the moon.

It is in this region that the rivers which always feed the ocean have their sources.

Here, in the abode of Varuna, are the waters of the three worlds.

In this region is situate the abode of Anarta, the prince of snakes.

And here is the unrivalled abode also of Vishnu, who is without beginning and without end.

In this region is also situate the abode of the great Rishi Kasyapa, the son of Maricha.

The western quarter is thus narrated to thee in course of telling thee of the different points.

Tell me now, O Galava, towards which side, O best of regenerate persons, shall we go?'

Udyoga Parva, Chapter 109.

--Narada continuing Galava's story to Duryodhana.

'Garuda said, O Brahmanas, since this quarter saveth from sin, and since one attaineth to salvation here, it is for this saying (Uttarana) power that it is called the north (uttara).

And, O Galava, because the abode of all the treasures of the north stretches in a line towards the east and the west, therefore is the north sometimes called the central region (madhyama).

And, O bull among the twice-born, in this region that is superior to all, none can live that is unamiable, or of unbridled passions, or unrighteous.

Hither, in the asylum, known by the name of Vadari, eternally dwell Krishna who is Narayana's self, and Jishnu that most exalted of all male beings, and Brahman (the Creator).

Hither, on the breast of Himavat always dwelleth Maheswara (Lord Siva) endued with the effulgence of the fire that blazeth up at the end of the Yuga.

As Purusha, he sporteth here with Prakriti (the universal mother).

Except by Nara and Narayana, he is incapable of being seen by the diverse classes of Munis, the gods with Vasava at their head, the Gandharvas, the Yakshas, and the Siddhas.

Though invested with Maya, him the eternal Vishnu alone, of a thousand heads and thousand legs, can behold.

It was in this region that Chandramas (the moon) was installed into the sovereignty of the entire regenerate order.

It was in this region, O thou foremost of all acquainted with Brahma, that Mahadeva (Lord Siva) first receiving her on his head, afterwards let (the sacred stream) Ganga fall from the heavens to the world of men.

It was here that the Goddess (Uma) underwent her ascetic austerities from her desire of obtaining Maheswara (Lord Siva) (as her Lord).

It was in this region that Kama, the wrath (of Siva), Himavat, and Uma, all together shone brilliantly.

It was here, on the breast of Kailasa, O Galava, that Kuvera was installed on the sovereignty of the Rakshasas, the Yakshas, and the Gandharvas.

It is in this region that (Kuvera's gardens called) Chitraratha lie, and it is here that the asylum of (the Munis called the) Vaikhanasas is situate.

It is here, O bull among the twice-born, that the celestial stream called Mandakini, and the mountain Mandara are to be seen.

It is here that the gardens called Saugandhi-kanaka are always guarded by the Rakshasas.

Here are many plains covered with grassy verdure, as also the plantain forest, and those celestial trees called the Sautanakas.

It is in this region, O Galava, that the Siddhas, with souls ever under control and always sporting at will, have their fit abodes, abounding with every object of enjoyment.

It is here that the seven Rishis with Arundhati may be seen.

It is here that the constellation Swati is to be seen, and it is here that it first rises to the view.

It is in this region that the Grandsire Brahman dwelleth in the vicinity of Yajna (sacrifice embodied).

It is in this quarter that the sun, the moon, and the other luminaries are seen to revolve regularly.

'It is in this region, O foremost of Brahmanas, that those illustrious and truth-speaking Munis called by the name of Dharma, guard the source of the Ganges.

The origin and physical features and ascetic penances of these Munis are not known to all.

The thousand dishes they use for serving the food offered in hospitality and the edibles also they create at will, are all a mystery.

The man, O Galava, that passeth beyond the point guarded by these Munis, is certain, O foremost of Brahmanas, to meet with destruction.

None else, O bull among Brahmanas, save the divine Narayana, and the eternal Nara called also Jishnu, succeeded in passing beyond the point so guarded.

It is in this region that the mountains of Kailasa lie, the abode of Ailavila (Kuvera).

It is here that the ten Apsaras known by the name of Vidyutprabha had their origin.

In covering, O Brahmana, the three worlds with three steps in the sacrifice of Vali (the Asura king), Vishnu had covered this whole northern region; and, accordingly, there is a spot here called Vishnupada.

And it is so called after the footprint of Vishnu caused on that occasion.

Here, in this quarter, at a place called Usiravija, by the side of the golden lake, king Marutta performed, O foremost of Brahmanas, a sacrifice.

It is here that the brilliant and shining gold mines of Himavat exhibit themselves to the illustrious and regenerate Rishi Jimuta.

And Jimuta gave away the whole of that wealth to the Brahmanas.

And having given it away, that great Rishi solicited them to call it after his own name.

And hence that wealth is known by the name of the Jaimuta gold.

Here, in this region, O bull among Bharatas, the regents of the worlds, O Galava, every morning and evening, proclaim, 'What business of what person shall we do?' It is for these, O foremost of Brahmanas, and other incidents, that the northern region is superior to all quarters.

And because this region is superior (uttara) to all, therefore, it is called the north (uttara).

The four regions have thus, O sire, been, one after another described to thee in details.

Towards which quarter then dost thou desire to go? I am ready, O foremost of Brahmanas, to show thee all the quarters of the earth!'

Udyoga Parva Sanskrit Chapter 110.

--Narada continuing Galava's story to DuryOdhana.

--Garuda Bird advising Galava.

'Galava said, O Garuda, O slayer of foremost snakes, O thou of beautiful feathers, O son of Vinata, carry me, O Tarkhya, to the east where the two eyes of Dharma are first opened.

O, take me to the east which thou hast first described, and whither, thou hast said, the gods are always present.

Thou hast said that thither both truth and virtue reside.

I desire to meet all the gods.

Therefore, O younger brother of Aruna, take me thither, so that I may behold the gods.

Narada continued, 'Thus addressed, the son of Vinata replied unto that Brahmana saying, Mount thou on my back.

And thereupon, the Muni Galava rode on the back of Garuda.

And Galava said, Thy beauty, O devourer of snakes, as thou proceedest, seemeth to be like that of the sun himself in the morning, that maker of the day endued with a thousand rays.

And, O ranger of the skies, thy speed is so great that the very trees, broken by the storm caused by the flapping of thy wings, seem to pursue thee in the course.

Thou seemest, O tenant of the welkin, to drag by the storm caused by the wings, the very Earth with all the waters of her oceans, and with all her mountains, woods and forests.

Indeed, the tempest caused by the motion of thy wings seems to continually raise into mid air the waters of the sea, with all their fishes and snakes and crocodiles.

I see fishes possessed of similar faces, and Timis and Timingilas and snakes endued with human faces, all crushed by the tempest raised by thy wings.

My ears are deafened by the roar of the deep.

So stunned am I that I can neither hear nor see anything.

Indeed, I have forgotten my own purpose.

Slacken thy speed, O ranger of the sky, remembering the risk to a Brahmana's life.

O sire, neither the sun, nor the cardinal points, nor the welkin itself, is any longer perceptible to me.

I see only a thick gloom around me.

The body is no longer visible to me.

I see only thy two eyes, O oviparous being, resembling two radiant gems.

I cannot see either thy body or my own.

At every step, I behold sparks of fire emitted from thy frame.

Stop without delay these sparks of fire and extinguish the dazzling radiance of thy eyes.

O son of Vinata, slacken this exceeding speed of thy course.

O devourer of snakes, I have no business to go with thee.

Desist, O blessed one, I am unable to bear this speed of thine.

I have promised to give my preceptor eight hundred white steeds of lunar effulgence, each having one ear black in hue.

I see no way, O oviparous being, of fulfilling my pledge.

There is but one way that I can see, and that is to lay down my own life.

I have no wealth of my own, nor any wealthy friend, nor can wealth, however immense, procure the accomplishment of my object.

Narada continued, 'Unto Galava uttering these and many other words of entreaty and sorrow, the son of Vinata, without slackening his speed, laughingly replied, saying, Thou hast little wisdom, O regenerate Rishi, since thou wishest to put an end to thy own life.

Death can never be brought about by one's effort.

Indeed, Death is God himself.

Why didst thou not, before this, inform me of thy purpose? There are excellent means by which all this may be accomplished.

Here is this mountain called Rishabha on the seaside.

Resting here for some time and refreshing ourselves with food, I will, O Galava, return.

'

UdyOga Parva , Sanskrit Chapter 111 --Narada continuing Galava's story --Garuda advising Galava Narada said, 'Alighting then on the peak of the Rishabha, the Brahmana and the Bird beheld a Brahmana lady of the name of Sandili, engaged there on ascetic penances.

And Galava and Garuda both saluted her by bending their heads, and worshipped her.

And thereupon, the lady enquired after their welfare and gave them seats.

And having taken their seats, both of them took the cooked food the lady offered them, after having first dedicated it to the gods with Mantras.

And having taken that food, they laid themselves down on the ground and fell into a profound sleep.

And Garuda, from desire of leaving that place, upon awakening, found that his wings had fallen off.

Indeed, he had become like a ball of flesh, with only his head and legs.

And beholding him come to that plight, Galava sorrowfully enquired, saying, What is this condition that has overtaken thee as the consequence of thy sojourn here? Alas, how long shall we have to reside here? Hadst thou harboured any evil and sinful thought in thy mind? It cannot, I am sure, be any trivial sin of which thou hast been guilty.

Thus addressed, Garuda replied unto the Brahmana, saying, Indeed, O regenerate one, I entertained the thought of carrying away this lady crowned with ascetic success from this spot to where the Creator himself, the divine Mahadeva (Lord Siva), the eternal Vishnu, and both Virtue and Sacrifice personified, live together, for as I thought this lady should live there.

I shall now, from desire of doing myself good, prostrate myself before this holy lady, and pray unto her, saying,--'with a heart full of pity, I had, indeed, entertained such a thought.

Whether I acted rightly or wrongly, even this was the wish, evidently against thy own, that was cherished by me from my respect for thee.

It behoveth thee, therefore, to grant me forgiveness, from the nobility of thy heart.

' That lady became gratified with that prince of birds and that bull of Brahmanas.

And addressing Garuda, sHe said, Fear not, O thou of beautiful feathers.

Resume thy wings, and cast off thy fears.

I was contempted by thee, but know that I do not pardon contempt.

That sinful being who entertains contempt for me, would speedily fall away from all blissful regions.

Without a single inauspicious indication about me, and perfectly blameless as I am, I have, in consequence of the purity of my conduct, attained to high ascetic success.

Purity of conduct beareth virtue as its fruit.

Purity of conduct beareth wealth as its fruit.

It is purity of conduct that bringeth on prosperity.

And it is purity of conduct that driveth away all inauspicious indications.

Go thou, O blessed prince of birds, whithersoever thou wishest, from this place.

Never entertain contempt for me, and take care that thou dost not contempt women that may even be truly blamable.

Thou shalt again be, as before, invested with both strength and energy.

At these words of that lady Garuda had his wings again, and they became even stronger than before.

And then with Sandili's leave, Garuda with Galava on his back took his departure.

But they failed to find the kind of steeds they were in search of.

And it so happened that Viswamitra met Galava on the way.

And thereupon, that foremost of speakers addressed Galava in the presence of Vinata's son and said, O regenerate one, the time is already come when thou shouldst give me the wealth thou hadst promised me of thy own accord.

I do not know what thou mayst.

I have waited so long.

I will wait for some time more.

Seek thou the way by which thou mayst succeed (in the matter of thy promise).

Hearing these words, Garuda addressed cheerless Galava who was overwhelmed with sorrow, saying, What Viswamitra said unto thee before hath now been repeated in my presence.

Come, therefore, O Galava, best of Brahmanas, we will deliberate on the matter.

Without giving thy preceptor the whole of the wealth (promised by thee), thou canst not even sit down.

'

Udyoga Parva , Sanskrit Chapter 112.

--Narada continuing Galava's story.

--Garuda advising Galava.

Narada said, 'Garuda then, that foremost of winged beings, addressed the cheerless Galava and said, Because it is created by Agni, in the bowels of the earth and augmented by Vayu, and because also the earth itself is said to be Hiranmaya, therefore, is wealth called Hiranya.

And because wealth supports the world and sustains life, therefore, is it called Dhana.

It is for serving these ends that Dhana (wealth) exists from the beginning in the three worlds.

On that Friday, when either of the two constellations--the Purvabhadra or the Uttarabhadra--is ascendant, Agni, creating wealth by a fiat of his will, bestoweth it on mankind for the increase of Kuvera's stock.

The wealth that is embowelled in the Earth is guarded by the deities called the Ajaikapats and the Ahivradnas, and also by Kuvera.

Exceedingly difficult of attainment, that wealth, therefore, O bull among Brahmanas, is rarely attained.

Without wealth there is no chance of thy acquisition of the promised steeds.

Beg thou, therefore, of some king born in the race of some royal sage, who may, without oppressing his subjects, crown our suit with success.

There is a king born in the lunar race, that is my friend.

We shall go to him, for he, amongst all on Earth, hath great wealth.

That royal sage is known by the name of Yayati, and he is the son of Nahusha.

His prowess is incapable of being baffled.

Solicited by thee in person, and urged by me, he will give what we seek, for he hath immense wealth, equal unto what belongeth to Kuvera, the lord of treasures.

Even thus, by accepting a gift, O learned one, pay off thy debt to thy preceptor.

Talking thus, and thinking upon what was best to be done, Garuda and Galava together went to king Yayati, who was then in his capital called Pratisthana.

The king received them hospitably and gave them excellent Arghya and water to wash their feet.

And the king then asked them the cause of their advent.

And thereupon Garuda answered, saying, O son of Nahusha, this ocean of asceticism, called Galava, is my friend.

He had been, O monarch, a disciple of Viswamitra for many thousand years.

This holy Brahmana, when commanded by Viswamitra to go away whithersoever he chose, addressed his preceptor at that time, saying,--'I desire to give something as preceptor's fee.

' Knowing this one's resources to be poor, Viswamitra did not ask for anything.

But when he was repeatedly addressed by this Brahmana on the subject of the tutorial fee, the preceptor, under a slight accession of wrath, said, 'Give me eight hundred white steeds of good pedigree and of lunar radiance, and each having one ear black in hue.

If, O Galava, thou desirest to give anything to thy preceptor, let this then be given!' It was thus that Viswamitra endued with wealth of asceticism said unto him in anger.

And this bull among Brahmanas is on that account smarting with great grief.

Unable to fulfil that command (of his preceptor), he hath now come to take thy shelter.

O tiger among men, accepting this as alms from thee, and filled once more with cheerfulness, he will, after paying his preceptor's debt, devote himself again to serve ascetic penances.

A royal Rishi as thou art, and, therefore, endued with wealth of asceticism of thy own, this Brahmana, by giving thee a portion of his wealth of asceticism, will make thee richer in wealth of that kind.

As many hairs, O lord of men, as there are on a horse's body, so many regions of bliss, O ruler of Earth, are attained by him that giveth away a horse in gift.

This one is as fit to accept a gift as thou art to make a gift.

Let therefore, thy gift in this instance be like milk deposited in a conch-shell.

'

Udyoga Parva, Sanskrit Chapter 113.

--nArada continuing Galava's story.

Narada said, 'Thus addressed by Suparna in excellent words fraught with truth, that performer of thousand sacrifices, that foremost of givers, that liberal ruler of all the Kasis, the lord Yayati, revolving those words in his mind and reflecting on them coolly, and seeing before him his dear friend, Tarkshya, and that bull among Brahmanas, Galava, and regarding the alms sought as an indication, highly praiseworthy, of (Galava's) ascetic merit, and in view particularly of the fact that those two came to him having passed over all the kings of the Solar race, said, Blessed is my life today, and the race also in which I am born, hath, indeed, been blessed today.

This very province also of mine hath equally been blessed by thee, O sinless Tarkshya.

There is one thing, however, O friend, that I desire to say unto thee, and that is, I am not so rich now as thou thinkest, for my wealth hath suffered a great diminution.

I cannot, however, O ranger of the skies, make thy advent here a fruitless one.

Nor can I venture to frustrate the hopes entertained by this regenerate Rishi.

I shall, therefore, give him that which will accomplish his purpose.

If one having come for alms, returneth disappointed, he may consume the (host's) race.

O son of Vinata, it is said that there is no act more sinful than that of saying, 'I have nothing'--and thus destroying the hope of one that cometh, saying, 'Give.

' The disappointed man whose hopes have been killed and his object not accomplished, can destroy the sons and grandsons of the person that faileth to do him good.

Therefore, O Galava, take thou this daughter of mine, this perpetrator of four families.

In beauty, she resembleth a daughter of the celestials.

She is capable of prompting every virtue.

Indeed, owing to her beauty, she is always solicited (at my hands) by gods and men, and Asuras.

Let alone twice four hundred steeds each with a black ear, the kings of the earth will give away their whole kingdoms as her dower.

Take thou, therefore, this daughter of mine, named Madhavi.

My sole desire is that I may have a daughter's son by her.

Accepting that daughter in gift, Galava then, with Garuda, went away, saying, We will again see thee.

And they took that maiden with them.

And Galava's oviparous friend addressed him, saying, The means have at last been obtained whereby the steeds may be obtained.

And saying this, Garuda went away to his own abode, having obtained Galava's permission.

And after the prince of birds had gone, Galava, with that maiden in his company, began to think of going to some one among the kings who would be able to give (fit) dower for the maiden.

And he first thought of that best of kings, Haryyaswa of Ikshaku's race, who ruled at Ayodhya, was endued with great energy, possessed of a large army consisting of four kinds of forces, had a well-filled treasury and abundance of corn, and who was dearly loved by his subjects, and who loved the Brahmanas well.

Desirous of offspring, he was living in quiet and peace, and engaged in excellent austerities.

And the Brahmana Galava, repairing unto Haryyaswa, said, This maiden, O king of kings, will increase the family of her husband by bringing forth offspring.

Accept her from me, O Haryyaswa, as thy wife, by giving me a dower.

I will tell thee what dower thou shalt have to give.

Hearing it, settle what thou shalt do.

'

Udyoga Parva, Sanskrit Chapter 114.

--Narada continuing Galava's story to Duryodhana.

--Galava selling Madhavi to King of Ayodhya.

Narada said, 'That best of monarchs, king Haryyaswa, after reflecting for a long while and breathing a long and hot sigh about the birth of a son, at last said, Those six limbs[16] that ought to be high are high in this maiden.

Those seven, again, that ought to be slender are slender in her.

Those three, again, which ought to be deep are deep in her.

And lastly, those five that ought to be red are red in her.

It seems that she is worth being looked at by even the gods and the Asuras, and is accomplished in all the arts and sciences.

Possessed of all auspicious signs, she will certainly bring forth many children.

She is even capable of bringing forth a son who may become an emperor.

Having regard to my wealth, tell me, O foremost of Brahmanas, what should be her dower.

Galava said, Give me eight hundred steeds, born in a good country, of lunar whiteness, and each with one ear black in hue.

This auspicious and large-eyed maiden will then become the mother of thy sons, like the fire-stick becoming the genetrix of fire.

--Udyog Parva , Sanskrit Chapter 114.

--Narada continuing Galava's story to Duryodhana.

--King of Ayodhya has only 200 horses.

Narada continued, 'Hearing these words, that royal sage, king Haryyaswa, filled with sorrow, but blinded by lust, addressed Galava, that foremost of Rishis, saying, I have only two hundred steeds about me of the kind wanted by thee, although of other kinds all worthy of sacrifice, I have many thousand moving about (in my dominions).

O Galava, I desire to beget only one son upon this damsel.

Kindly grant this request of mine.

Hearing these words of the king, that damsel said unto Galava, A reciter of Brahma granted me a boon that I would after each delivery, be a maiden again.

Give me away, therefore, to this king, accepting his excellent steeds.

In this way, full eight hundred steeds may be obtained by thee from four kings in succession, and I also may have four sons.

Collect thou the wealth intended for thy preceptor, in this way.

Even this is what I think.

It depends, however, on thee, O Brahmana, as to how thou shouldst act.

Thus addressed by that maiden, the Muni Galava said these words unto king Haryyaswa, O Haryyaswa, O best of men, accept this damsel for a fourth part of the dower that I have settled, and beget only one son upon her.

Taking then that maiden and worshipping Galava, the king in due time and place had by her a son of the kind wished for.

And the son so born came to be called by the name of Vasumanas.

Richer than all the wealthy kings of the earth, and resembling one of the Vasus themselves he became a king and giver of great wealth.

'After some time, intelligent Galava came back and approaching the delighted Haryyaswa, said unto him, Thou hast, O king obtained a son.

Indeed, this child is like the sun himself in splendour.

The time hath come, O foremost of men, for me to go to some other king for alms.

Hearing these words, Haryyaswa who was even truthful in speech and steady in acts of manliness, and remembering that the balance of six hundred steeds could not be made up by him, gave Madhavi back to Galava.

And Madhavi also, abandoning that blazing, kingly prosperity, and once more becoming a maiden, followed the footsteps of Galava.

And Galava too, saying, Let the steeds remain with thee, then went, accompanied by the maiden, to king Divodasa.

'

Udyog Parva Sanskrit Chapter 115 --Narada continuing Galava's story to Duryodhana.

--Galava selling Madhavi to Divodasa.

Narada said, 'Galava then, addressing Madhavi, said, The ruler of the Kasis is an illustrious king known by the name of Divodasa.

He is the son of Bhimasena, is endued with great prowess, and is a mighty sovereign.

O blessed maiden, we are now going to him.

Follow me slowly and grieve not.

That ruler of men is virtuous and devoted to truth and hath his passions under control.

Narada continued, 'When the muni came before that king he was received with due hospitality by the latter.

Galava, then, began to urge the monarch for begetting a child.

Thus addressed, Divodasa said, I heard of all this before.

Thou needest not speak much, O Brahmana.

I may tell thee, O best of Brahmanas, that as soon as I heard of this matter, my heart was set upon it.

This also is a mark of great honour to me that passing over all other kings thou hast come to me.

Without doubt, thy object will be gained.

In the matter of the steeds, O Galava, my wealth is like that of king Haryyaswa.

I shall, therefore, beget only one royal son upon this maiden.

Hearing these words, that best of Brahmanas gave that damsel unto the king, and the king, thereupon, duly wedded her.

And the royal sage then sported with her, as Surya with Prabhavati, Agni with Swaha, Vasava with Sachi, Chandra with Rohini, Yama with Urmila, Varuna with Gauri, Kuvera with Riddhi, Narayana with Lakshmi, Sagara with Jahnavi, Rudra with Rudrani, the Grandsire with Saraswati, Vasishtha's son Saktri with Adrisyanti, Vasishtha with Arundhati (called also Akshamala), Chyavana with Sukanya, Pulastya with Sandhya, Agastya with the princess of Vidarbha Lopamudra, Satyavan with Savitri, Bhrigu with Puloma, Kasyapa with Aditi, Richika's son Jamadagni with Renuka, Kusika's son Viswamitra with Himavati, Brihaspati with Tara, Sukra with Sataprava, Bhumipati with Bhumi, Pururavas with Urvasi, Richika with Satyavati, Manu with Saraswati, Dushyanta with Sakuntala, the eternal Dharma with Dhriti, Nala with Damayanti, Narada, with Satyavati, Jaratkaru with Jaratkaru, Pulastya with Pratichya, Urnayus with Menaka, Tumvuru with Rambha, Vasuki with Satasirsha, Dhananjaya (Arjuna) with Kamari, Rama with the princess of Videha Sita, or Janardana with Rukmini.

And unto king Divodasa, that sporting with and taking delight in her, Madhavi bore a son named Pratardana.

And after she had borne him a son, the holy Galava came to Divodasa at the appointed time, and said unto him, Let the maiden come with me, and let the steeds also thou art to give me remain with thee, for I desire to go elsewhere, O ruler of Earth, for dower.

Thus addressed, the virtuous king Divodasa, who was devoted to truth, thereupon, gave back the maiden to Galava at the appointed time.

'

Udyog Parva Sanskrit Chapter 116 --Narada continuing Galava's story to DuryOdhana --Galava selling Madhavi to Bhoja king Usinara.

Narada said, 'The illustrious Madhavi, faithful to her promise, abandoning that prosperity and once more becoming a maiden, followed the footsteps of the Brahmana Galava.

And Galava, whose heart was set upon the accomplishment of his own business, reflecting upon what he should do next then went to the city of the Bhojas for waiting upon king Usinara.

And arrived before that king of unbaffled prowess, Galava addressed him, saying, This maiden will bear thee two royal sons.

And, O king, begetting upon her two sons equal unto the Sun and the Moon, thou mayst attain all thy objects both here and hereafter.

As her dower, however, O thou that art conversant with every duty, thou shalt have to give me four hundred steeds of lunar splendour, each having ear black of hue.

This effort of mine for obtaining the steeds is only on account of my preceptor, otherwise I myself have nothing to do with them.

If thou art able to accept (my terms), do as I bid thee without any hesitation.

O royal sage, thou art now childless.

Beget, O king, a couple of children.

With offspring so begot as a raft, save they Pitris and thyself also.

O royal sage, he that hath fruit in the shape of offspring to enjoy, never falleth from heaven.

Nor hath such a person to go to that frightful hell whither the childless are doomed to go.

Hearing these and other words of Galava, king Usinara, replied unto him, saying, I have heard what thou, O Galava, hast said.

My heart also is inclined to do thy bidding.

The Supreme Ordainer, however, is all-powerful.

I have only two hundred steeds of the kind indicated by thee, O best of Brahmanas.

Of other kinds, I have many thousands moving about in my dominions.

I will, O Galava, beget only one son upon her, by treading the path that hath been told by others such as Haryyaswa and Divodasa.

I will act after their manner in the matter of the dower.

O best of Brahmanas, my wealth exists for only my subjects residing in the city and the country, and not for my own comforts and enjoyment.

That king, O virtuous one, who giveth away for his own pleasure the wealth that belongeth to others, can never earn virtue or fame.

Let this maiden, endued with the radiance of a celestial girl, be presented to me.

I will accept her for begetting only one child.

Hearing these and many other words that Usinara spoke, that best of Brahmanas, Galava, then applauded the monarch and gave him the maiden.

And making Usinara accept that damsel, Galava went into the woods.

And like a righteous man enjoying the prosperity (won by his deeds), Usinara began to sport with and enjoy that damsel in valleys and dales of mountains by fountains and falls of rivers, in mansions, delightful chambers, variegated gardens, forests and woods, agreeable places, and terraces of houses.

And, in due time, was born unto him a son of the splendour of the morning sun, who afterwards became an excellent king, celebrated by the name Sivi.

And after the birth of that son, the Brahmana Galava came to Usinara, and taking back from him the maiden went, O king, to see the son of Vinata.

'

Udyog Parva Sanskrit Chapter 117 --Narada continuing Galava's story to Duryodhana.

--Galava selling Madhavi.

Narada said, 'Seeing Galava, Vinata's son smilingly addressed him, saying, By good luck it is, O Brahmana, that I behold thee successful.

Galava, however, hearing the words spoken by Garuda informed him that a fourth part of the task was still unfinished.

Garuda then, that foremost of all speakers, said unto Galava, Do not make any endeavour (to obtain the remaining two hundred), for it will not succeed.

In days of yore, Richika sought at Kanyakuyja Gadhi's daughter, Satyavati, for making her his wife.

Thereupon Gadhi, O Galava, addressing the Rishi, said, 'O holy one, let a thousand steeds of lunar brightness, each with one ear black of hue, be presented to me.

' Thus requested, Richika said, 'So be it'.

And then wending his way to the great mart of steeds (Aswatirtha) in Varuna's abode, the Rishi obtained what he sought and gave them unto the king.

Performing a sacrifice then of the name of Pundarika, that monarch gave away those steeds (as Dakshina) unto the Brahmanas.

The three kings to whom thou hadst applied had purchased those horses from the Brahmanas, each to the number of two hundred.

The remaining four hundred, O best of Brahmanas, while being transported over the river, were taken by the Vitasta.

[17] Therefore, O Galava, thou canst never have that which is not to be had.

Do thou then, O virtuous one, present unto Viswamitra this maiden as an equivalent for two hundred steeds, along with the six hundred thou hast already obtained.

Thou wilt then, O best of Brahmanas, be freed from thy grief and crowned with success.

Galava then, saying, So be it, and taking with him both the maiden and the steeds, went with Garuda in his company unto Viswamitra.

And arrived in his presence, Galava said, Here are six hundred steeds of the kind demanded by thee.

And this maiden is offered as an equivalent for the remaining two hundred.

Let all these be accepted by thee.

Upon this maiden have been begotten three virtuous sons by three royal sages.

Let a fourth, foremost of all, be begotten upon her by thee.

And thus let the number of steeds, eight hundred, be regarded by thee as full, and let me also, being freed from thy debt, go and practise ascetic penances as I list.

Viswamitra then, beholding Galava in the company of the bird, and that highly beautiful maiden, said, Why, O Galava, didst thou not give me this maiden before? Four sons then, sanctifiers of my race, would all have been mine alone.

I accept this maiden of thine for begetting upon her one son.

As regards the steeds, let them graze in my asylum.

Saying this, Viswamitra of great effulgence began to pass his time happily with her.

And Madhavi bore him a son of the name of Ashtaka.

And as soon as that son was born, the great Muni Viswamitra addressed him to both virtue and profit, and gave him those six hundred steeds.

Ashtaka then went to a city, bright as the city of Soma.

And Kusika's son Viswamitra also having made over the damsel to his disciple, himself went into the woods.

And Galava also, with his friend Suparna, having in this way succeeded in giving his preceptor the fee he had demanded, with a cheerful heart addressed that maiden and said, Thou hast borne a son who is exceedingly charitable, and another who is exceedingly brave, and a third who is devoted to truth and righteousness, and yet another who is a performer of great sacrifices.

O beautiful maiden, thou hast, by these sons, saved not only thy father, but four kings and myself, also.

Go now, O thou of slender waist.

Saying this, Galava dismissed Garuda that devourer of snakes, and returning the maiden unto her father himself went into the woods.

'

Udyog Parva, Sanskrit Chapter 118.

--Narada continuing Galava's story to Duryodhana.

Madhavi choosing forest as her groom.

Narada said, 'King Yayati then, desirous again of disposing of his daughter in svayamvara (self selection of husband), went to a hermitage on the confluence of the Ganga and the Yamuna, taking Madhavi with him on a chariot, her person decked with garlands of flowers.

And both Puru and Yadu followed their sister to that sacred asylum.

And in that spot was assembled a vast concourse of Nagas and Yakshas and human beings, of Gandharvas and animals and birds, and of dwellers of mountains and trees and forests, and of many inhabitants of that particular province.

And the woods all around that asylum were filled with numerous Rishis resembling Brahman himself.

And while the selection had commenced of husband, that maiden of the fairest complexion, passing over all the bridegrooms there assembled, selected the forest as her lord.

Descending from her chariot and saluting all her friends, the daughter of Yayati went into the forest which is always sacred, and devoted herself to ascetic austerities.

Reducing her body by means of fasts of various kinds and religious rites and rigid vows, she adopted the deer's mode of life.

And subsisting upon soft and green grass-blades, resembling the sprouts of lapis lazuli and which were both bitter and sweet to the taste, and drinking the sweet, pure, cool, crystal, and very superior water of sacred mountain-streams, and wandering with the deer in forests destitute of lions and tigers, in deserts free from forest-conflagration, and in thick woods, that maiden, leading the life of a wild doe, earned great religious merit by the practice of Brahmacharya austerities.

'(Meanwhile) king Yayati, following the practice of kings before him, submitted to the influence of Time, after having lived for many thousands of years.

The progeny of two of his sons--those foremost of men--Puru and Yadu, multiplied greatly, and in consequence thereof, Nahusha's son won great respect both in this and the other world.

O monarch, dwelling in heaven, king Yayati, resembling a great Rishi, became an object of much regard, and enjoyed the highest fruits of those regions.

And after many thousands of years had passed away in great happiness, on one occasion while seated among the illustrious royal sages and great Rishis, king Yayati, from folly, ignorance, and pride, mentally disregarded all the gods and Rishis, and all human beings.

Thereat the divine Sakra (Indra)--the slayer of Vala--at once read his heart.

And those royal sages also addressed him saying, Fie, fie.

And beholding the son of Nahusha, the questions were asked, Who is this person? What king's son is he? Why is he in heaven? By what acts hath he won success? Where did he earn ascetic merit? For what hath he been known here? Who knoweth him? The dwellers of heaven, thus speaking of that monarch, asked one another these questions about Yayati, that ruler of men.

And hundreds of heaven's charioteers, and hundreds of those that kept heaven's gates, and of those what were in charge of heaven's seats, thus questioned, all answered, We do not know him.

And the minds of all were temporarily clouded, so that none recognised the king and thereupon the monarch was soon divested of his splendour.

'

Udyog Parva Sanskrit Chapter 119.

--Narada after completing Galava's story, narrating Yayati's fate Narada said, 'Removed from his place and pushed away from his seat with heart trembling in fear, and consumed by burning remorse, with his garlands dimmed in lustre and his knowledge clouded, shorn of his crown and bracelets, with head swimming and every limb relaxed divested of ornaments and robes, incapable of being recognised, sometimes not seeing the other residents of heaven, filled with despair, and his understanding a perfect blank, king Yayati fell headlong towards the earth.

And before the king fell down, he thought within himself, What inauspicious and sinful thought was entertained by me in consequence of which I am hurled from my place? And all the kings there, as also the Siddhas and the Apsaras, laughed at seeing Yayati losing his hold, and on the point of falling down.

And soon, O king, at the command of the king of the gods, there came a person whose business it was to hurl down those whose merits were exhausted.

And coming there,

He said unto Yayati, Extremely intoxicated with pride, there is none whom thou hast not disregarded.

In consequence of this thy pride, heaven is no longer for thee.

Thou deservest not a residence here, O son of a king.

Thou art not recognised here, go and fall down.

Even thus the celestial messenger spoke unto him.

Nahusha's son then said, repeating the words three times, If fall I must, let me fall amongst the righteous.

And saying this, that foremost of persons that had won high regions by their acts, began to think of the particular region whereon he should fall.

Beholding meanwhile four mighty kings, viz.

, Pratardana, Vasumanas, Sivi, the son of Usinara, and Ashtaka, assembled together in the woods of Naimisha, the king fell amongst them.

And those monarchs were then engaged in gratifying the lord of the celestials by performance of the sacrifice known by the name of Vajapeya.

And the smoke arising from their sacrificial altar reached the very gates of heaven.

And the smoke that rose thus, looked like a river connecting both the earth and the heaven.

And it resembled the sacred stream Ganga while descending from heaven to earth.

And smelling that smoke and guiding his course by it, Yayati, the lord of the universe, descended on the earth.

And the king thus fell amongst those four lions among rulers, who were all endued with great beauty, who were foremost of all the performers of sacrifices, who were, indeed, his own relatives, and who resembled the four regents of the four quarters, and looked like four mighty sacrificial fires.

And thus, in consequence of the exhaustion of his merits, the royal sage Yayati fell amongst them.

And beholding him blazing with beauty, those kings asked him, saying, Who art thou? Of what race, country, or city art thou? Art thou a Yaksha, or a god, a Gandharva, or a Rakshasa? Thou does not seem to be a human being.

What object hast thou in view? Thus questioned, Yayati answered, I am the royal sage Yayati.

Fallen am I from heaven in consequence of the expiration of my virtue.

Having desired to fall amongst the righteous, I have fallen amongst you.

The kings then said, O foremost of persons, may that wish of thine, be realized.

Accept thou our virtues and the fruits of all our sacrifices.

Yayati replied saying, I am not a Brahmana competent to accept a gift.

On the other hand, I am a Kshatriya.

Nor is my heart inclined towards lessening the virtues of others.

Narada continued, 'About this time, Madhavi, in course of her purposeless wanderings, came there.

Beholding her, those monarchs saluted her and said, What object hast thou in coming here? What command of thine shall we obey? Thou deservest to command us, for all of us are thy sons, O thou that art endued with wealth of asceticism! Hearing these words of theirs, Madhavi was filled with delight and approaching then her father, she reverentially saluted Yayati.

And touching the heads of all her sons, that lady engaged in ascetic austerities said to her father, Being my sons these all are thy daughter's sons, O king of kings.

They are not strangers to thee.

These will save thee.

The practice is not new, its origin extends to antiquity.

I am thy daughter Madhavi, O king, living in the woods after the manner of the deer.

I also have earned virtue.

Take thou a moiety.

And because, O king, all men have a right to enjoy a portion of the merits earned by their offspring, it is for this that they desire to have daughter's sons.

Even this was the case with thyself, O king (when thou madest me over to Galava).

At these words of their mother, those monarchs saluted her, and bowing down unto also their maternal grandsire, repeated those very words in a loud, incomparable, and sweet voice, and making, as it were, the whole earth resounded therewith, in order to rescue that maternal grandsire of theirs who had fallen down from heaven.

And at that time Galava also came there, and addressing Yayati, said, Accepting an eighth part of my ascetic austerities, ascend thou to heaven again.

'

Udyoga Parva Sanskrit Chapter 120 --Resurrection of Yayati to heaven.

Narada said, 'As soon as that bull among men, king Yayati was recognised by those virtuous persons, he rose again to heaven, without having had to touch the surface of the earth.

And he regained his celestial form and had all his anxieties entirely dispelled.

And he rose again, decked with celestial garlands and robes, adorned with celestial ornaments, sprinkled with celestial scents, and furnished with heavenly attributes, and without having been compelled to touch the earth with his feet.

Meanwhile, Vasumanas who was celebrated in the world for his liberality, first addressing the king, uttered these words in a loud voice, The merit that I have won on earth by my unblamable conduct towards men of all orders, I give unto thee.

Be it all thine, O king.

The merit that one winneth by liberality and forgiveness, the merit that is mine in consequence of the sacrifices I have performed, let all that also be thine.

After this, Pratardana, that bull among Kshatriyas, said, Ever devoted to virtue as also to war, the fame that hath here been mine as a Kshatriya, in consequence of the appellation of hero (by which I am known),--be that merit thine.

After this, Sivi, the intelligent son of Usinara, said these sweet words, Unto children and women in jest, danger, or calamity, in distress, or at dice, I have never spoken a falsehood.

By that truth which I never sacrificed ascend thou to heaven.

I can, O king, give up all objects of desire and enjoyment, my kingdom, yea, life itself, but truth I cannot give up.

By that truth, ascend thou to heaven; that truth for which Dharma, that truth for which Agni, that truth for which he of a hundred sacrifices, have each been gratified with me, by that truth ascend thou to heaven.

And lastly, the royal sage Ashtaka, the offspring of Kusika's son and Madhavi, addressing Nahusha's son Yayati who had performed many hundreds of sacrifices, said, I have, O lord, performed hundreds of Pundarika, Gosava and Vajapeya sacrifices.

Take thou the merit of these.

Wealth, gems, robes, I have spared nothing for the performance of sacrifices.

By that truth ascend thou to heaven.

And that king thereupon leaving the earth, began to ascend towards heaven, higher and higher, as those daughter's sons of his, one after another, said those words unto him.

And it was thus that those kings by their good acts, speedily saved Yayati, who had been hurled from heaven.

It was thus that those daughter's sons born in four royal lines, those multipliers of their races, by means of their virtues, sacrifices, and gifts, caused their wise maternal grandfather to ascend again to heaven.

And those monarchs jointly said, Endued with the attributes of royalty and possessed of every virtue, we are, O king, thy daughter's sons! (By virtue of our good deeds) ascend thou to heaven.

'

Udyoga Parva Sanskrit Chapter 121 --nArada continuing his advice to duryOdhana.

Narada said, 'Sent back to heaven by those righteous kings, distinguished by the liberality of their sacrificial presents, Yayati possessed of daughter's sons, dismissed them and reached the celestial regions.

Attaining to the eternal region obtained through the merit of his daughter's sons, and adorned by his own deeds, Yayati, bathed in a shower of fragrant flowers and hugged by perfumed and delicious breezes, blazed forth with great beauty.

And cheerfully, received back into heaven with sounds of cymbals, he was entertained with songs and dances by various tribes of Gandharvas and Asuras.

And diverse celestial and royal Rishis and Charanas began to pay their adorations to him.

And deities worshipped him with an excellent Arghya and delighted him with other honours.

And after he had thus regained heaven and tranquillity of heart, and had once more become freed from anxiety, the Grandsire, gratifying him by his words said, Thou hadst earned the full measure of virtue by thy earthly deeds, and this region (that thou hadst won) is eternal, as thy deeds are in heaven.

Thou hadst, however, O royal sage, destroyed thy acquisition by thy vanity alone, and thereby covered the hearts of all the denizens of heaven with darkness in consequence of which none of them could recognise thee.

And since thou couldst not be recognised, thou wert hurled hence! Saved once more by the love and affection of thy daughter's sons, thou hast once more arrived here, and regained this unchangeable, eternal, sacred, excellent, stable, and indestructible region won before by thy own deeds.

Thus addressed, Yayati said, O holy one, I have a doubt, which, it behoveth thee, to dispel.

O Grandsire of all the worlds, it behoveth me not to ask any one else.

Great was my merit, augmented by a (virtuous) rule over my subjects for many thousands of years and won by innumerable sacrifices and gifts.

How could merit (so great) be exhausted so soon in consequence of which I was hurled hence? Thou knowest, O holy one, that the regions created for me were all eternal.

Why were all those regions of mine destroyed, O thou of great effulgence? The Grandsire answered, saying, Thy merit, augmented by a (virtuous) rule over thy subjects for many thousands of years and won by innumerable sacrifices and gifts, was exhausted by only one fault, in consequence of which thou wert hurled (from this region).

That fault, O king of kings, was thy vanity for which thou hadst become an object of contempt with all the residents of heaven.

O royal sage, this region can never be rendered eternal by vanity, or pride of strength, or malice, or deceitfulness, or deception.

Never disregard those that are inferior, or superior, or in the middle station.

There is not a greater sinner than he who is consumed by the fire of vanity.

Those men that will converse upon this fall and re-ascension of thine, will, without doubt, be protected even if overtaken by calamity.

Narada continued, 'O monarch, even such was the distress into which Yayati fell in consequence of vanity, and such was the distress into which Galava fell owing to his obstinacy.

They that desire their own good should listen to friends that wish them well.

Obstinacy should never be entertained, for obstinacy is always the root of ruin.

For this reason, O son of Gandhari, forsake vanity and wrath.

O hero, make peace with the sons of Pandu.

Avoid anger, O king, that which is given away, that which is done, the austerities that are practised, the libations that are poured on fire, not one of these is ever destroyed or suffereth any diminution.

None else, again, enjoyeth the fruits of these save he that is their agent.

He that succeedeth in understanding this truly superior and excellent history, that is approved by persons of great learning as well as by those that are freed from anger and lust, and that is enforced by various references to scriptures and reason, obtaineth a knowledge of virtue and profit and desire, and enjoyeth the sovereignty of the whole world!' ----------End of Madhavi's story------

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