According to Adi059-010 and 011, Sage Kashyapa was son of Brahma.
brahmaNo maanasaah putraa viditaah shaN maharshayah-.
mariicir atryaGgirasau pulastyah pulahah kratuh.
Mariiceh kaSyapah putrah kaSyapaat tu imaah prajaah-
prajajJire mahaabhaagaa dakshakanyaas trayodaSa
According to Adiparva, Chapter 59, verses 14 to 16, VishNu was one of the 12 sons of Kashyapa. They are also called DvaadaSAdityas.
Sun, Rain God (VaruNa), Thunder God (Sakra-Indra) were also among the Adityas.
Adi059014 Adityaam dvaadasaadityaah sambhuutaa bhuvaneSvaraah-
ye raajan naamatas taams te kiirtayishyaami bhaarata
Adi059015 dhaataa mitro aryamaa Sakro varuNaS caamSa eva ca-
bhago vivasvaan puushaa ca savitaa daSamas tathaa
Adi059016 ekaadaSas tathaa tvashTaa vishNur dvaadaSa ucyate-
jaghanyajah sa sarveshaam aadityaanaam guNaadhikah
According to Adi-060-001 to 003, Eleven Rudras are sons of Sage Kashyapa.
adi060001 brahmaNo maanasaah putraa viditaah shaN maharshayah-
ekaadaSa sutaah sthaaNoh khyaataah paramamaanasaah
Adi060002 mrigavyaadhaS ca SarvaS ca nirritiS ca mahaayaSaah-
ajaikapaad ahirbudhnyah pinaakii ca paramtapah
Adi060003 dahano atheSvaraS caiva kapaalii ca mahaadyutih-
sthaaNur bhavaS ca bhagavaan rudraa ekaadaSa smritaah.
Kunti, first had Yudhishthira through the God of Death- Yama.
She, then had, Bhima through the God of Wind- VAyu.
She, thirdly, had Arjuna through the God of Heaven- Indra alias Sakra.
According to 20th Century Hinduism, Vishnu and Isvara are superior to Brahma, the Creator. Or at least, all the three rank equally.
According to Mahabharata verses quoted above, they are just grand sons of Brahma-Kashyapa clan.
According to Adi Parva Chapter 114, Verses 055 to 058, Vishnu and his 11 brothers, and Isvara and his 10 brothers were present when Arjuna was born.
Adi114055 dhaataaryamaa ca mitraS ca varuNo amSo bhagas tathaa-
indro vivasvaan puushaa ca tvashTaa ca savitaa tathaa
Adi114056 parjanyaS caiva vishNus ca aadityaah paavakaarcishah-
mahimaanam paaNDavasya vardhayanto ambare sthitaah
Adi114057 mrigavyaadhaS ca SarvaS ca nirritiS ca mahaayaSaah-
ajaikapaad ahirbudhnyah pinaakii ca paramtapah
Adi114058 dahano atheSvaraS caiva kapaalii ca viSaam pate-
sthaaNur bhavaS ca bhagavaan rudraas tatraavatasthire.
For the reading of those who have no time or keen interest to read the above Sanskrit lines, I quote below the Open Source Translation of Late K.M. Ganguli.
'Kunti heard these extraordinary words, while lying in the room. And
hearing those words uttered so loudly, the ascetics dwelling on the
mountain of a hundred peaks, and the celestials with Indra sitting in
their cars, became exceedingly glad. The sounds of the (invisible) drum
filled the entire welkin. There were shouts of joy, and the whole region
was covered with flowers showered down by invisible agents. The various
tribes of celestials assembled together, began to offer their respectful
adorations to the son of Pritha. The sons of Kadru (Nagas), the son of
Vinata, the Gandharvas, the lords of the creation, and the seven great Rishis, viz., Bharadwaja, Kasyapa, Gautama, Viswamitra, Jamadagni, Vasishtha, and the illustrious Atri who illumined the world of old when the Sun was lost, all came there. And Marichi, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Daksha the lord of creation, the Gandharvas, and Apsaras, came there also. The various tribes of Apsaras, decked with celestial garlands and every ornament, and attired in fine robes, came there and danced in joy, chanting the praises of Vibhatsu (Arjuna). All around, the great Rishis began to utter propitiatory formulas. And Tumvuru accompanied by
the Gandharvas began to sing in charming notes. And Bhimasena and
Ugrasena, Urnayus and Anagha. Gopati and Dhritarashtra and Suryavarchas
the eighth, Yugapa and Trinapa, Karshni, Nandi, and Chitraratha,
Salisirah the thirteenth, Parjanya the fourteenth, Kali the fifteenth,
and Narada the sixteenth in this list, Vrihatta, Vrihaka, Karala of great
soul, Brahmacharin, Vahuguna, Suvarna of great fame, Viswavasu, Bhumanyu,
Suchandra, Sam and the celebrated tribes of Haha and Huhu gifted with
wonderful melody of voice,--these celestial Gandharvas, O king, all went
there. Many illustrious Apsaras also of large eyes, decked with every
ornament came there to dance and sing. And Anuchana and Anavadya,
Gunamukhya and Gunavara, Adrika and Soma, Misrakesi and Alambusha,
Marichi and Suchika, Vidyutparna and Tilottama and Ambika, Lakshmana,
Kshema Devi, Rambha, Manorama, Asita, Suvahu, Supriya, Suvapuh,
Pundarika, Sugandha, Surasa, Pramathini, Kamya and Saradwati, all danced there together. And Menaka, Sahajanya, Karnika, Punjikasthala,
Ritusthala, Ghritachi, Viswachi, Purvachiti, the celebrated Umlocha,
Pramlocha the tenth and Urvasi the eleventh,--these large-eyed dancing girls of heaven,--came there and sang in chorus.
And Dharti and Aryaman and Mitra and Varuna, Bhaga and Indra, Vivaswat, Pushan, Tvastri and Parjanya or Vishnu, these twelve Adityas came there to glorify Pandu's son. And, O king, Mrigavyadha, Sarpa, the celebrated Niriti, Ajaikapada, Ahivradhna, pinakin, dahana, Iswara, Kapalin, Sthanu and the illustrious
Bhaga--these eleven Rudras,--also came there.
And the twin Aswins, the eight Vasus, the mighty Maruts, the Viswedevas, and the Sadhyas, also came there. And Karkotaka, Vasuki, Kachchhapa, Kunda and the great Naga Takshaka,--these mighty and wrathful snakes possessed of high ascetic merit also came there. And Tarkshya, Arishtanemi, Garuda,
Asitadvaja,--these and many other Nagas, came there, so also Aruna and Aruni of Vinata's race also came there.
And only great Rishis crowned with ascetic success and not others saw those celestials and other beings seated in their cars or waiting on the mountain peaks. Those best of Munis beholding that wonderful sight, became amazed, and their love and affection for the children of Pandu was in consequence enhanced.
SOME THOUGHT PROVOKING QUESTIONS
OVERSTRESS ON ARJUNA
*Why the 20th Century Supreme Gods Vishnu and Isvara were not present when Yudhishthira and Bhima were born? Why they were present when Arjuna was born? Did they leave in their cars, by the time Nakula and Sahadeva were born? Yudhishthira, Bhima, Nakula and Sahadeva were not sinners. This shows that whole Mahabharata was in adulation of not only Vishnu (Krishna or Vaasudeva), but also restricted only to Arjuna. For this reason only, the preachers equalised Arjuna with Krishna and treated them as Nara and nArAyana. This overstress on Arjuna was probably owing to the balladeers, poets, scripture preachers were commissioned their jobs by the descendents of Arjuna-Abhimanyu-Parikshit-Janamejaya clan. Yudhishthira, Bhima, Nakula and Sahadeva were only sundry actors. Vyasa, did show them some, probably inapt pity, by allowing them to share Draupadi.
*If the supreme Gods were to come to bless or celebrate the birth of Pandu's sons, they should have come, when the first son Yudhishthira was born and waited till the birth of Sahadeva.
*Why Brahma was conspicuously absent? He was the creator and Grandfather of the two Supreme Gods Vishnu and Siva.
*Brahma happens to be son of VishNu, born from his navel.
*During mythological Dvapara Age (third of the four ages krita, treta, dvapara and kali yugas) there were apparently no temples. Temples were started to be built for Vishnu and Siva (Isvara) mostly during historical Gupta period. We do not see temples for Brahma (Creator) anywhere in India, except one or two places like Chebrole, A.P. and Pushkar, Rajasthan. Historians felt that Ramayana and Mahabharata evolved during Gupta period. Why did, then, Guptas ignore Brahma?
*Brahma and Parabrahmam are different. 'Para' is again a comparative degree prefix. Brahma, is four headed, his fifth head severed by Isvara or Rudra. Brahma was born from the Lotus navel of Vishnu. Parabrahmam as explained above should be the grand father of Vishnu and Rudra. Parabrahmam is the supreme spirit, the essence of Advaita philosophy. This parabrahmam should be different from the paramatma (supreme spirit) of Bhagavadgita fame. The Bhagavadgita's paramatma is just an equivalent of Vishnu.
*I am going to rewrite this post elucidating these quagmires and conundrums in the scripts. We have to do this in such a way that we do not hurt the sentiments of the 20th and 21st Century Hindus.
*Siva scriptures treat Vishnu as an inferior God. Vishnu lost his teeth in Daksha sacrifice for this reason only. Vishnu and Brahma unable to find the apex and the nadir of Siva come back empty-handed.
*Vishnu scriptures treat Siva as inferior. Vishnu had to save Siva many times. Vishnu bewitches in female Mohini form, Siva and begets Ayyappa. Vishnu had to save Siva from the demon Gajasura.
*20th/21st Century temple preachers and TV scripture preachers superficially say that Vishnu and Siva one and the same. For the sake of their livelihood and money-making, they may be one and the same. A temple preacher wearing horizontal three line mark on his forehead will never wear vertical one line or three line marks on his forehead. This unwillingness can be tested anywhere in India. Shall we hope to see ON TVs or stage, Brahmasri Samavedam Shanmukha Sarma and Changanti Koteswara Rao wearing three line vertical marks on their foreheads? Some tradition will stop them from doing wearing such marks. Are they alien marks?
*Vishnu and his concert Lakshmi were North European-Scandinavian God family. Christianity erased them calling pagan. Siva was an Indian indigenous tribal God or the mediterranean Crete Island God; or a combination of both. It is not clear how the process equalising North European Vishnu with the 11 other sons of Kashyapa started.
*Recently, I heard a discourse on Mahabhagavata, on TTD Bhakti Channel. What I could capture: Vishnu in his abode lives in four forms: the lowest one is Vishnu. Above him Maha Vishnu and Sada Vishnu. Over them, nArAyana.
*Of course, there is a view that the 11 rudras mentioned above are the lieutenants of Supreme God Isvara. But Isvara is one among the 11 here. To make supreme Isvara, more distinct, they add prefixes like maha + ISvara= mahESvara; parama + ISvara = paramaESvara. These are like the three degrees of comparison we have in English grammar big-bigger-biggest. The Vishnu-MahaVishnu-SadaVishnu-nArAyana hierarchy may also be another degree of comparison.